Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Common menu bar links

Awareness guide - listed terrorist entities

Officers talking in front of PC

Susheel Gupta

"We think terrorism happens elsewhere… I was 12. One night, my father told me that the plane my mother was on exploded in mid-air. The last image I have of her is her lifeless body, lying on a metal table. In her honour, I made a promise to work in a field where I could make people’s living environment healthier, peaceful and safer. I am now a lawyer, a victim of terrorism and an advocate for all victims of terrorism."

Susheel Gupta
Air India Flight 182 Victims’ Families Association Vice-Chairperson, Canadian Human Rights Tribunal - Lost his mother in the Canadian bombing of Air India Flight 182 on June 23, 1985.

This section presents the terrorist entities appearing on Public Safety Canada’s official list. Each fact sheet contains relevant information on each group: description, names, symbols, objectives, prominent attacks, etc.

** Refer to Public Safety Canada's website for the most up-to-date list of terrorist entities. The content of this section was taken directly from the Public Safety Canada’s website and Justice Canada’s website.

Listed terrorist entities in Canada

A terrorist entity listed in Canada may or may not be listed in other countries. Listing an entity (i.e. person, group, etc.) makes its association with terrorism formally and publicly known.

While it is not a crime to be listed, the listing of a terrorist entity triggers a number of enforcement actions. In concret termes, listing an entity implies that its assets may be frozen, seized/restrained, and may be subject to forfeiture with the aim of a seriously disrupting the entity’s activities.

Formal listing makes it illegal for any Canadian to participate, whether willingly or not, in the activities of the listed entity. No individual or institution is allowed to contribute, either financially, materially or physically, to facilitating the activities of a listed terrorist entity.

Canadian definition of terrorist activity

"The Criminal Code defines terrorist activity to include an act or omission undertaken, in or outside Canada, for a political, religious or ideological purpose, that is intended to intimidate the public with regard to its security, including its economic security, or to compel a person, government or organization (whether in or outside Canada) to do or refrain from doing any act and that intentionally causes one of a number of specific forms of serious harm."

Anti-Terrorism Act, 2001

Adopted by Parliament following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA) amended the Criminal Code, the Official Secrets Act, the Canada Evidence Act, the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) Act and a number of other Acts. It also enacted the Charities Registration (Security Information) Act. It was not a stand-alone Act, but rather an amending statute. The ATA formed a key component of the Government's Anti-terrorism Plan, which had four objectives:

  • to prevent terrorists from getting into Canada and protect Canadians from terrorist acts;
  • to activate tools to identify, prosecute, convict and punish terrorists;
  • to keep the Canada-U.S. border secure and a contributor to economic security; and
  • to work with the international community to bring terrorists to justice and address the root causes of violence.

The ATA reflected a commitment to the safety of all Canadians and strengthened Canada's ability to meet its international obligations, while respecting Canadian values and the rights enshrined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Charter). Canada's enactment of the ATA paralleled actions taken by its international partners. However, it was a made-in-Canada solution to address terrorism.

Identify, prosecute, convict and punish terrorists

Terrorist activities in Canada have always been treated as criminal. The ATA creates measures to identify, prosecute, convict and punish terrorist groups; provides new investigative tools to law enforcement and national security agencies; and ensures that Canadian values of respect and fairness are preserved and the root causes of hatred are addressed through stronger laws against hate crimes and propaganda.

** For more Information: Department of Justice, About the Anti-Terrorism Act

Anti-Terrorism Act, 2015

In line with measures taken by our allies, the Government of Canada is implementing legislation that is helping our law enforcement and national security agencies stop those who promote the commission of terrorism offences in general, such as calling for attacks on Canadians.

The Anti-Terrorism Act, 2015 received Royal Assent on June 18, 2015. Through this legislation, the Government of Canada is taking action to prevent terrorist travel, thwart efforts to use Canada as a recruiting ground and prevent planned attacks on our soil.

Stopping the promotion of terrorism

By criminalizing the promotion of the commission of terrorism offences in general, the Government is providing an additional tool for law enforcement to counter radicalization to violence and to assist community leaders and family members in their efforts to counter it.

Preventing terrorists from recruiting others

The Government of Canada is providing the courts with the authority to order the takedown of terrorist propaganda − to interfere with terrorists' efforts to radicalize and recruit others − the same types of authorities that currently exist for harmful materials such as child pornography and hate propaganda. The Government of Canada is also enabling the sharing of information related to national security, across federal departments and agencies, to ensure that authorities can better identify those with terrorist links and intentions. This will also stop them from travelling by air for terrorism purposes.

Disrupting terrorist plots and preventing planned attacks

The Government of Canada is making it easier for police to detain suspected terrorists before they can harm Canadians, assisting national security agencies in preventing non-citizens who pose a threat from entering and remaining in Canada, and giving the Canadian Security Intelligence Service the ability to intervene against specific terrorist plots.

** For more information: Public Safety Canada’s website

54 Listed terrorists entities in Canada

Listing an entity is a way to publicly identify a group or individual associated with terrorism.

World Map

World map with listed terrorists entities, by region:

Americas: 6

Europe: 2

Africa: 9

Middle East: 28

Asia: 9


01. Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB)

Logo of Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB)
Logo of Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB)

Map of Middle East
Mainly present in the Middle East

Date formed

2009

Date listed

2015-06-29

Founder

Saleh Al-Qaraawi

Classification

Religious

Description

Affiliated to Al Qaida and its branch in Syria, Jabhat al-Nusra, the Abdallah Azzam Brigades (AAB) form a fluid network organized into a number of regional battalions, adhering to the Salafist ideology, including Lebanon, Jordan, the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Iraq, the Gaza Strip and Syria. The group has claimed responsibility for several rocket attacks in Israel, fired from Lebanon. The AAB is also involved in training, combat and support for other groups in Syria that aim to overthrow the Bashar Al Assad's Ba'athist regime and its allies.

The group was created by Saleh al-Qaraawi after he fought in Fallujah with Al Qaida in Iraq. Abou Musab al-Zarqawi (who founded Al Qaida in Iraq) allegedly recommended the creation of the group in order to hit Middle Eastern targets. The name of the group was inspired by Abdullah Azzam, a well-known Jordanian ideologist of Palestinian origin in the jihadist circles who was one of the instigators of the jihad in Afghanistan against the Red Army and who established what would become Al Qaida after his death. He was also one of Usama Bin Laden's mentors.

Objectives

The AAB aim to overthrow the powers in place in the Middle East (namely in Syria, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon). The group also wants to halt the Iranian intervention in Syria and stop Hizballah from being involved in the conflict.

Targets

Israel, Hizballah and Western interests in the Middle East.

Also known as

The Abdullah Azzam Brigades; the Brigades of Abdullah Azzam; the Brigades of the Martyr Abdullah Azzam; the Ziyad al-Jarrah Battalions; the Ziad al-Jarrah Battalion; the Yusuf al-'Uyayri Battalions; the Yusuf al-Ayiri Battalion; the Battalion of Sheikh Yusuf al-'Ayiri; and the Marwan Hadid Brigades

Prominent attacks

  • July 28, 2010: The active AAB branch in the Arabian Peninsula attacked a Japanese-owned oil tanker in the Strait of Hormuz using explosives, in order to avenge the incarceration of ideologist Omar Abdel-Rahman in the United States.
  • November 19, 2013: A double car bomb attack is conducted against the Iranian embassy in Beirut, Lebanon. Twenty-two people were killed.
  • February 19, 2014: Two suicide bombings near the Iranian cultural centre in Beirut, Lebanon, killed 11 people.

References


02. Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)

Logo of Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)
Logo of Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)

Injured victims of four armed men of the Abu Nidal Organization are evacuated
Injured victims of four armed men of the Abu Nidal Organization are evacuated to a US military hospital in Germany.

Map of Palestine
Mainly present in Palestine

Date formed

1974

Date listed

2003-02-12

Founder

Sabri al Banna alias Abu Nidal

Classification

Nationalist

Description

From the mid-1970s to the early 1990s, the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) was one of the most feared transnational terrorist organizations in the world, killing or wounding about 900 persons in terrorist attacks in 20 countries.

Objectives

Destroy the State of Israel through armed struggle to liberate the people of Palestine.

Targets

United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians and several Arab countries.

Also known as

Fatah Revolutionary Council, Revolutionary Council, Revolutionary Council of Fatah, Al-Fatah Revolutionary Council, Fatah-the Revolutionary Council, Black June, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims, Black September, Egyptian Revolution, Arab Fedayeen Cells, Palestine Revolutionary Council, Organization of Jund al Haq, Arab Revolutionary Council

Prominent attacks

  • 1982: Attempted assassination of Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom.
  • 1985: Near simultaneous attacks on the Rome and Vienna airports.
  • 1986: Attack on the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul and the Pan Am Flight 73 hijacking in Karachi.

References


03. Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)

Shahada
Worn by Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), the Shahada represents the Muslim profession of faith

Map of the southern Philippines
Mainly present in the southern Philippines

Date formed

1991

Date listed

2003-12-02

Founder

Radical members of the Moro National Liberation Front under the leadership of Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist/Religious

Description

The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) is a militant, armed Islamist group based in the islands of the southern Philippines with links to Al Qaida and Jemaah Islamiyyah.

Objectives

Establish an Islamic state governed by Sharia law in the southern Philippines and expand its influence to Malaysia and Indonesia. In practice, the ASG primarily uses terrorism for profit.

Targets

Southern Philippines and neighbouring countries.

Also known as

Al Harakat Al Islamiyya (AHAI), Al Harakat-ul Al Islamiyya, Al- Harakatul-Islamia, Al Harakat Al Aslamiya, Abou Sayaf Armed Band (ASAB), Abu Sayaff Group, Abu Sayyef Group and Mujahideen Commando Freedom Fighters (MCFF)

Prominent attacks

Kidnap-for-ransom, guerrilla warfare, mass-casualty bombings and beheadings are particularly favoured tactics of the ASG.

  • 2004: ASG claimed credit for planting a bomb on a passenger ferry and sinking the vessel, killing more than 100 people.
  • 2005: Valentine’s Day bombings in Manila, Davao and General Santos: 8 people killed and 150 injured.

References


04. Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade (AAMB)

Logo of Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade (AAMB)
Logo of Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigade (AAMB)

A Palestinian militant of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade (AAMB)
A Palestinian militant of the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade (AAMB)

Map of Palestine
Mainly present in Palestine

Date formed

2000

Date listed

2003-04-02

Founder

Coalition of Palestinian armed groups, the militant wing of Fatah

Classification

Nationalist

Description

The Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade (AAMB) emerged at the outset of the 2,000 Palestinian al-Aqsa Intifada and consists of loose cells of Palestinian militants loyal to, but not under the direct control of, the secular-nationalist Fatah party.

Objectives

Expel Israeli presence from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and establish an independent and sovereign Palestinian state.

Targets

Israeli military targets and Israeli settlers

Also known as

Al-Aqsa Intifada Martyrs' Group, Al-Aqsa Brigades, Martyrs of al-Aqsa group, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Battalion and Armed Militias of the Al-Aqsa Martyr Battalions

Prominent attacks

The AAMB has conducted armed, suicide and rocket attacks to achieve its objectives, including the first suicide bombing carried out by a female on January 27, 2002. The Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade has also carried out several joint attacks with the Islamist groups Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad.

  • March 2, 2002: Beit Yisrael bombing, Jerusalem - 11 killed.
  • January 5, 2003: Bombing at Southern Tel Aviv bus stop - 22 killed.
  • January 29, 2004: Bombing at Rehavia, Jerusalem, bus line 19 - 11 killed.
  • March 14, 2004: Bombing at Port of Ashdod - 10 killed.

References


05. Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (AGAI)

Omar Abdel Rahman
Omar Abdel Rahman, an Egyptian activist considered as the spiritual leader of Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (AGAI). He is commonly known as the "Blind Sheikh".

Map of Egypt
Mainly present in Egypt

Date formed

1970

Date listed

2002-07-23

Founder

Egyptian militant student group

Classification

Religious

Description

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya (AGAI) started in the early 1970s as an Islamist student movement on Egyptian campuses. By the late 1970s, the organization began to advocate change by force.

Objectives

Overthrow the Egyptian government and replace it with an Islamic state governed by Sharia law; attack American interests.

Targets

The police, government officials, informants, government sympathizers, foreign tourists and Coptic Christians.

Also known as

Islamic Group (IG)

Prominent attacks

  • June 1995: Attempt on the life of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Ethiopia.
  • 1997: Worst terror attack in Egyptian history: 58 foreign tourists and 4 Egyptians killed at Luxor.
  • From 1992 to 1997: Victims of AGAI campaign against the Egyptian state totaled more than 1,200.

References


06. Al-Ittihad Al-Islam (AIAI)

Sheikh Hassan Aweys, head of AIAI's military wing
Sheikh Hassan Aweys, head of AIAI's military wing

Al-Ittihad Al-Islam (AIAI) fighters
Al-Ittihad Al-Islam (AIAI) fighters

Map of Somalia and Ethiopia
Mainly present in Somalia and Ethiopia

Date formed

Late 1980s

Date listed

2002-07-23

Founder

Sheikh Ali Warsame supported by a Somali insurgent group who aimed to overthrow Somali dictator Siad Barre

Classification

Religious

Description

Al-Ittihad Al-Islam (AIAI) is a Somali extremist group. It has operated primarily in Somalia with a presence in Ethiopia, Kenya and Republic of Djibouti. AIAI rose to prominence following the collapse of the Barre regime in Somalia and is reported to have had links to Al Qaida.

Objectives

Form an Islamic state in Somalia and Somali-inhabited territories in the Horn of Africa.

Targets

The Somali government and Ethiopian security forces.

Also known as

N/A

Prominent attacks

To achieve its objective, AIAI has engaged in bombing, assassination attempts and the kidnapping and murder of aid workers.

  • 1993: AIAI assisted Al Qaida in an attack against US soldiers during operation Restore Hope, leaving 18 dead.
  • August 7, 1998: AIAI took part in the attacks against the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salam, Tanzania: 230 dead and 4,000 injured.
  • November 30, 2002: Double attack against Israeli interests in Mogadishu, killed 15 people and injured 80.
  • May 3, 2005: Members of AIAI and the Takfir Wal-Hijra group were believed to be responsible for the attack in a stadium in Mogadishu, killing 15 people and injuring 40.

References


07. Al-Muwaqi'un Bil Dima

Mokhtar Belmokhtar
Graffiti of Mokhtar Belmokhtar, founder

Map of Mali and Libya
Mainly present in Mali and Libya

Date formed

December 2012

Date listed

2013-11-07

Founder

Mokhtar Belmokhtar

Classification

Religious

Description

Mokhtar Belmokhtar, a dissenting member of Al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), created Al-Muwaqi'un Bil Dima (MBD) during the Malian war. The Jihadist movement was based in Gao, Mali.

In August 2013, the group merged with the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA) and became Al- Murabitoun. A MOJWA leader left the group during the merge and pledged allegiance to the Islamic State. Although he claimed to speak on behalf of the entire Al-Murabitoun organization, it became apparent that he represented only a splinter faction.

Objectives

Deter Western and African military intervention in northern Mali and imposing Sharia law in North and West Africa. Strengthen the rule of Sharia law in northern Mali.

Targets

All Western and African military presence in northern Mali and foreign workers in major industrial facilities. In addition to Western interests in North Africa, this group is engaged in a fight against the Islamic State terrorist group. In 2013, the Libyan section of IS posted a wanted notice against Mokhtar Belmokhtar.

Also known as

Al Mouaquioune bi addimaa, Katibat al-Muqaoon bil-Dumaa, al- Muwaqun Bi-Dima, Al-Muawaqqi'un bi 'l-Dima al-Mouwakoune bi- Dimaa, al-Mua'qi'oon Biddam, Those Who Sign With Blood, El Mouwakaoune Bidame, Those Who Have Signed Through Blood, the Signatories for Blood, the Signatories in Blood and Those Who Sign in Blood

Prominent attacks

January 16, 2013: Attack of the Tigantourine gas facility near In Amenas in eastern Algeria. MBD militants, using assault rifles, rocket-propelled grenades and anti-tank mines, took dozens of foreign and Algerian workers hostage that resulted in 67 dead. Two Canadian terrorists, Ali Medlej and Xristos Katsiroubas, were part of the group.

References


08. Al-Murabitoun

Mokhtar Belmokhtar
Graffiti of Mokhtar Belmokhtar, founder

Map of Mali, northern Niger, Burkina Faso and Libya
Mainly present in Mali, northern Niger, Burkina Faso and Libya

Date formed

August 2013

Date listed

2014-06-02

Founder

Mokhtar Belmokhtar

Classification

Religious

Description

Al-Murabitoun, an armed Salafist jihadist group based in West Africa, was established by the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Al-Muwaqi'un Bil Dima.

Objectives

Spread jihad across North Africa.

Targets

The group was formed to strengthen efforts against French military forces and interests in Mali.

Also know as

Mourabitounes, Al-Mourabitoun, Al-Morabitoune, Al- Mourabitoune and Les Almoravides

Prominent attacks

  • January 16, 2013: Attack against the Tigantourine gas facility near In Amenas and hostage taking, leaving 67 dead, including two canadians, Xristos Katsiroubas et Ali Medlej.
  • February 8, 2014: Five Malian aid workers were kidnapped near Gao, Mali.
  • March 7, 2015: Two men opened fire in a bar in Bamako, Mali, killing 5 people.
  • April 17, 2015: Suicide attack outside a UN base in Mali.
  • November 20, 2015: Hostage taking at the Radisson Blu Hotel in Bamako, Mali, leaving 21 dead.
  • January 15, 2016: Attack in Ouagadougou, in Burkina Faso, killing 29 people, including six Canadians on a humanitarian mission.

References


09. Al Qaida

Usama Bin Laden
Founder of Al Qaida, Usama Bin Laden, deceased May 2011.

Al Qaida fighters
Al Qaida fighters

Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Al Qaida's Iraq frontman Abu Musab al-Zarqawi

Map of Afghanistan and Pakistan
Mainly present in Afghanistan and Pakistan

Date formed

1988

Date listed

2002-07-23

Founder

Usama bin Laden

Classification

Religious

Description

Al Qaida serves as the strategic hub and driver for the global Islamist terrorist movement. In addition to its own members, Al Qaida's network includes groups operating in many countries throughout the world.

Ayman Al-Zawahiri took over after its historic leader Usama Bin Laden was killed in an American raid in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Objectives

Unite Muslims to fight the United States and its allies, overthrow regimes it deems "non-Islamic" and expel Westerners and non-Muslims from Muslim countries. Al Qaida has forged ties and strategic control over other like-minded Islamist terrorist groups and provides encouragement and inspiration to other affiliated and aligned groups around the world.

Targets

The United States and all its allies.

Also known as

Al Jihad (AJ), Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Vanguards of Conquest (VOC), The Islamic Army, Islamic Salvation Foundation, The Base, Group for the Preservation of the Holy Sites, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders, Usama Bin Ladin Network, Usama Bin Ladin Organization and Qa'idat al-Jihad

Prominent attacks

Al Qaida activities include, but are not limited to, suicide attacks, simultaneous bombings, kidnappings and hijackings.

  • 1993: First attack against the World Trade Center, leaving 6 people dead and 1,042 injured.
  • 1998: Bombings of two American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania: 243 dead and nearly 4,500 injured.
  • 2000: Bombing of the US Navy destroyer USS Cole in Yemen, killing 17 crew members and injuring 39.
  • 2001: Attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon near Washington DC on September 11: 2,973 killed.
  • 2004: Train bombings in suburban Madrid: close to 200 persons killed and 1,400 injured.
  • 2009: Foiled plot to bomb the New York subway system.

References


10. Al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

Anwar Al-Awlaki
Anwar Al-Awlaki, a radical Yemeni-American cleric

Militants from Al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula
Militants from Al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula

Map of the Arabian Peninsula
Mainly present in the Arabian Peninsula

Date formed

January 2009

Date listed

2010-12-23

Founder

Abdulaziz al-Muqrin

Classification

Religious

Description

Al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) is a Yemen-based affiliate of Al Qaida's (AQ) network. Its former leader Nasir Al- Wuhayshi was killed in June 2015 by an American drone.

Objectives

Cleanse the Arabian Peninsula of foreign influence – particularly Western military personnel and civilian contractors – and establish a single Islamic caliphate in place of the existing regimes in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.

Targets

American and Western interests in the Arabian Peninsula.

Also known as

Ansar al-Shari'a (AAS), Al Qaida of Jihad Organization in the Arabian Peninsula, Tanzim Qa'idat al-Jihad fi Jazirat al- Arab, Al-Qaida Organization in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), Al-Qaida in the South Arabian Peninsula and Al-Qaida in Yemen (AQY)

Prominent attacks

AQAP's most prominent attacks have been suicide bombings; however, the group has also engaged in guerrilla-style raids on military and police targets.

  • December 25, 2009: AQAP was responsible for a failed attempt to detonate an explosive concealed by a Nigerien associate aboard a Northwest Airlines flight as the plane prepared to land in Detroit.
  • January 2015: Saïd and Chérif Kouachi stormed the offices of Charlie Hebdo, a French satyrical newspaper, killing 12 people. It is believed that Saïd had received training in Yemen. The two brothers claimed they were acting in the name of AQAP.

Anwar Al-Awlaki, an American ideologist of yemeni origin linked to AQAP, has played an important role with the group. Being an extremely popular figure, he helped publicize AQAP's magazine, Inspire. This publication is used to spread the group's ideology and to provide tactical advice about weapons training and bomb-making. It is also a way for AQAP to claim attacks or congratulate those responsible for them, for instance the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013.

References


11. Al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

Logo of Al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)
Logo of Al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

Abdelmalek Droukdel
Abdelmalek Droukdel, founder of Al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM)

Map of Sahel
Present in Sahel and, to a lesser extent, in the Kabyle mountains (Algeria)

Date formed

1998

Date listed

2002-07-23

Founder

Abdelmalek Droukdel

Classification

Religious

Description

AQIM is a militant Sunni Islamist extremist group which originated as the Armed Islamic Group (AIG), an armed Islamist resistance movement to the secular Algerian government. In 1998, a splinter of the AIG declared its independence from the original group, believing the AIG's brutal tactics were hurting the Islamist cause and named itself Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC). The GSPC pledged allegiance to Al Qaida in September 2006. In January 2007, the GSPC rebranded itself as Al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Al-Murabitoun's leader, Mokthar Belmokhtar, broke with AQIM in 2012 to start his own group (see Al-Muwaqi'un Bil Dima). AQIM is the most effective and largest extremist armed group inside Algeria. Since it pledged allegiance to Al Qaida, AQIM has also adopted a global jihad ideology.

Objectives

Create an Islamic state governed by Sharia law in Algeria.

Targets

All Algerian and Western state symbols inside and outside Algeria.

Also known as

Tanzim Qaedat bi-Bilad al-Maghrab al-Islami, Tanzim al-Qa´ida fi bilad al-Maghreb al-Islamiya, The Organization of Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb, Al-Qa´ida Organisation in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb, Al-Qa´ida in the Islamic Maghreb, Al-Qa´ida in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb, al-Qaïda dans les pays du Maghreb islamique, Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC), Groupe salafiste pour la prédication et le combat, the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat

Prominent attacks

The group has maintained a high operational tempo since its emergence under the name of AQIM, employing conventional terrorist tactics in Algeria, including guerrilla-style ambushes and improvised explosive devices against military personnel and truck bombs against government targets. AQIM continues to kidnap Westerners and hold them for ransom in return for the release of imprisoned Islamic militants. AQIM also built a network for the purpose of sending North African militants to commit suicide bombings in Iraq.

  • December 2008: Two Canadian diplomats, Robert Fowler and Louis Guay, were kidnapped in Niger. They were released in April 2009.
  • January 22, 2009: Four European tourists were kidnapped near the border between Niger and Mali.
  • January 8, 2011: Two French citizens, including one NGO member, were kidnapped in Niger. Both hostages died during an attempt by French forces to liberate them.
  • 2012-2013: AQIM participated in the Malian war, which accounted for hundreds of deaths and hundreds of thousands of refugees.
  • November 20, 2015: Attack at the Radisson Blu Hotel in Bamako, Mali, leaving 21 dead. This was a joint attack with the group Al-Murabitoun.

References


12. Al Shabaab

Logo of Al Shabaab
Logo of Al Shabaab

newly trained Al Shabaab fighters performing military exercises
Hundreds of newly trained Al Shabaab fighters performing military exercises.

Map of Somalia
Mainly present in Somalia

Date formed

2006

Date listed

2010-03-05

Founder

Group formed as an offshoot of the Islamic Courts Union’s most radical faction in Somalia

Classification

Religious/Political/Nationalist

Description

Al Shabaab is an organized but shifting Islamist group. It is currently the strongest, best organized, financed and armed military group in Somalia, controlling the largest stretch of territory in southern Somalia. The group is believed to be closely linked with Al Qaida.

Objectives

Implement Sharia law in Somalia, wage war against the enemies of Islam and remove all foreign forces and Western influence from Somalia.

Targets

The Somali government and its allies, including Kenya.

Also known as

Harakat Shabaab al Mujahidin, al Shabab, Shabaab, the Youth, Mujahidin al Shabaab Movement, Mujahideen Youth Movement, MYM, Mujahidin Youth, Hizbul Shabaab, Hisb'ul Shabaab, al-Shabaab al-Islamiya, Youth Wing, al Shabaab al- Islaam, al-Shabaab al-Jihad, the Unity of Islamic Youth, the Popular Resistance Movement in the Land of the Two Migrations

Prominent attacks

Al Shabaab has carried out suicide bombings and attacks using land mines and remote-controlled roadside bombs, as well as targeted assassinations against Ethiopian and Somali security forces, other government officials, journalists and civil society leaders. It has also carried out suicide bombings in Uganda in retaliation for the presence of Ugandan peacekeeping forces in Somalia. Since 2007, the group has committed nearly 550 acts of terrorism, killing 1,600 and injuring 2,100.

  • July 11, 2010: Attacks in Kampala (Uganda) during the soccer World Cup final, killing at least 74.
  • October 1st, 2011: A 66 year old disabled French woman was kidnapped by an armed gang, at her home on Manda Island, situated off the coast of Kenya. She died while in custody.
  • October 4, 2011: A suicide bomber drived a truck carrying explosives into a government ministry in Mogadishu, Somalia, killing more than 70 people, including many students.
  • October 24, 2011: A grenade exploded in a Nairobi, Kenya, dance club, injuring 14 people.
  • April 14, 2013: Armed Al Shabaab militants carrying explosives attack Mogadishu’s main Supreme Court. The suicide bombing resulted in 29 civilians killed and 58 injured. It is believed that a Canadian took part in this attack.
  • September 21, 2013: Al Shabaab militants claim responsibility for an armed attack at the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, resulting in the deaths of at least 68 civilians.
  • November 22, 2014: Execution of 28 non-Muslims out of 60 passengers in a bus in Kenya.
  • April 2, 2015: Attack in a university in Kenya, killing 147 people.

References


13. Ansar al-Islam (AI)

Logo of Ansar al-Islam (AI)
Logo of Ansar al-Islam (AI)

Member of the Ansar al-Islam group
Member of the Ansar al-Islam group standing guard

Map of Iraq
Mainly present in Iraq

Date formed

December 2001

Date listed

2004-05-17

Founder

Product of a merger between various Kurdish militant Islamist factions

Classification

Religious

Description

Ansar al-Islam (AI) is the product of a merger between various Kurdish Islamist factions and one of the most prominent anti- Coalition groups in Iraq. It maintains links to Al Qaida and is closely tied to Al Qaida in Iraq. AI promotes a radical interpretation of Islam and a strict application of Sharia law.

Objectives

Expel all foreign forces from Iraq, counter the growing influence of Iraq's Shia and secular Kurdish communities and establish an independent Iraqi state governed by Sharia law.

Targets

Shia communities, Kurdish authorities and the US military.

Also known as

The Partisans of Islam, Helpers of Islam, Supporters of Islam, Soldiers of God, Kurdistan Taliban, Soldiers of Islam, Kurdistan Supporters of Islam, Supporters of Islam in Kurdistan, Followers of Islam in Kurdistan, Ansar al-Sunna

Prominent attacks

  • 2002: Failed attempt to assassinate the Prime Minister of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan.
  • 2004: Double suicide bombing on the respective headquarters of two Kurdish political parties that killed more than 60 people and wounded over 200 others.

AI is also well-known for kidnapping and executing foreign hostages, often beheading their victims and posting video of the act on the Internet.

References


14. Armed Islamic Group (AIG)

Logo of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA)
Logo of the Armed Islamic Group (GIA)

Algerian woman shows the pictures of all the victims AIG.
An Algerian woman whose two sons were killed by the Armed Islamic Group (AIG). She holds a panel featuring the pictures of all the victims of this terrorist group.

Map of Algeria
Mainly present in Algeria

Date formed

1992

Date listed

2002-07-23

Founder

Abdelhak Layada

Classification

Religious

Description

The Armed Islamic Group (AIG) is a radical Islamist group based in Algeria. The AIG has been dormant since approximately 2005.

Objectives

Overthrow the Algerian government and replace it with an Islamic state.

Targets

The AIG is known to have targeted intellectuals, journalists, foreigners, both within and outside Algeria, as well as government employees.

Also known as

N/A

Prominent attacks

The group employs a variety of methods and tactics in its attacks, including bombings, shootings, hijackings and kidnappings.

  • Since 1993: The AIG has killed more than 100 expatriates in Algeria, predominantly Europeans.
  • From 1993 to 1998: About 70,000 civilians were killed in raids throughout the country.
  • December 1994: The AIG hijacked an Air France Flight from Algiers to Paris.

References


15. Asbat Al-Ansar (AAA) ("The League of Partisans")

Sheikh Abu Sharif Akl
Sheikh Abu Sharif Akl, spokesperson of Asbat Al-Ansar (AAA)

Map of Lebanon
Mainly present in Lebanon

Date formed

Late 1980s, early 1990s

Date listed

2002-11-27

Founder

Sheikh Hisham Shreidi

Classification

Religious

Description

Asbat Al-Ansar (AAA) is a (Sunni) Lebanese Islamist extremist group linked to Al Qaida and other Sunni extremist groups. The group bases its ideology on Salafism, a branch of Islam whose adherents believe in a pure interpretation of the Koran and Islamic law.

Objectives

Promote the establishment of an Islamic state in Lebanon.

Targets

Christian, secular and Shia institutions in the country. Past targets have included the Lebanese state, as well as elements within the country AAA considers un-Islamic. The group is opposed to Israel and the Western World.

Also known as

Osbat Al Ansar, Usbat Al Ansar, Esbat Al-Ansar, Isbat Al Ansar, Usbat-ul-Ansar, Band of Helpers, Band of Partisans, League of the Followers

Prominent attacks

Mid-1990s: Bombings of nightclubs, theaters and liquor stores.

  • 1999: Two AAA members attacked a Sidon court and killed four people.
  • 2000: AAA involved in two plots to assassinate the US Ambassador to Lebanon.

Since at least 2005, AAA has been sending recruits into Iraq to fight against Coalition forces.

References


16. Aum Shinrikyo (AUM)

Logo of Aum Shinrikyo
Logo of Aum Shinrikyo

Fumihiro Joyu
Fumihiro Joyu, leader of Aum Shinrikyo

Victim of the nerve gas attack by the Aum Shinrikyo.
Victim of the nerve gas attack by the Aum Shinrikyo.

Map of Japan
Mainly present in Japan

Date formed

1987

Date listed

2002-12-10

Founder

Shoko Asahara, a charismatic Japanese guru

Classification

Religious

Description

Formed in Japan in 1987 by Chizuo Matsumoto alias Shoko Asahara, Aum Shinrikyo (AUM) is a religious organization with a belief system that mixes various religions – primarily Buddhism – with science fiction and the prophecies of Nostradamus. Originally peaceful in nature, the group became increasingly dangerous and violent, seeking to actively bring about Armageddon. The group claimed that the United States would initiate Armageddon by starting World War III with Japan. The founder of the sect was sentenced to the death penalty in 2004 for the 1995 attack. The sentence was confirmed by the Supreme Court of Japan in May 2015. On January 18, 2000, the sect changed its image and replaced AUM with "Aleph".

Objectives

Control Japan, then the world and subsequently create a global utopian society.

Targets

Japan and the entire world

Also known as

Aum Shinri Kyo, Aum, Aum Supreme Truth, A. I. C. Comprehensive Research Institute, A. I. C. Sogo Kenkyusho and Aleph

Prominent attacks

  • 1994: AUM committed its first sarin attack against Japanese civilians by releasing the nerve agent in Matsumoto, killing seven people and wounding more than a hundred others.
  • 1995: AUM released sarin in the Tokyo subway system, killing a dozen people and wounding thousands more.

References


17. Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC)

Logo of Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
Logo of Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC)

Flag of the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
Flag of the Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia

A paramilitary fighter of Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia
A paramilitary fighter of Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) kisses his rifle during a ceremony.

Map of Colombia
Mainly present in Colombia

Date formed

April 1997

Date listed

2003-04-02

Founder

Carlos Castano

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist/ Right-Wing

Description

The Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (AUC) is a right-wing terrorist organization in Colombia which acts as an umbrella organization for like-minded paramilitary groups. Guided by its objective of countering the influence and activity of leftwing guerrilla organizations, the AUC has come into conflict with rival terrorist groups from the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) and the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC). At first, the confederation of local militias was funded by large land owners. The AUC is closely linked to the drug trade as the revenue from illegal narcotics smuggling is integral to its operations.

Objectives

Protect the economic interests of citizens and of the state from the Communist-inspired guerrilla movements.

Targets

FARC and ELN

Also known as

Columbian United Self-Defense Groups, Autodéfenses unies de Colombie and United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia

Prominent attacks

In order to achieve its goals, the AUC has employed a variety of tactics, including assassinations, intimidation, torture and kidnapping. The group has massacred civilians in villages believed to support the guerrilla.

  • July 15/20, 1997: Mapiripán massacre, in which 39 people were allegedly killed. Several members of the military, including a colonel and a general, received the maximum sentence of forty years in jail for their involvement.
  • February 16/19, 2000: El Salado massacre, in which more than 100 people were allegedly killed.
  • October 14, 2000: Macayepo massacre, in which fifteen peasants were killed.
  • February 2005: San José de Apartadó massacre, in which eight residents of the community, including two FARC militia members, women and children, were killed.

References


18. Babbar Khalsa International (BKI)

Logo of Babbar Khalsa International
Logo of Babbar Khalsa International (BKI)

Members of  BKI
Members of the Babbar Khalsa International (BKI), accused in the Delhi cinema hall bomb blasts.

Map of India
Mainly present in India

Date formed

Spring 1978

Date listed

2003-06-18

Founder

Talwinder Singh Parmar and Jathedar Sukhdev Singh Babbar. The group was formed in the wake of bloody clashes between Sikh rival groups on April 13, 1978

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist

Description

Babbar Khalsa International (BKI) is a Sikh terrorist entity that has members in Pakistan, North America, Europe and Scandinavia. One of the founders, Jathedar Sukhdev Singh Babbar, of Indian origin, was a naturalized Canadian. He went back to India where he was murdered in 1992.

Objectives

Establish a fundamentalist independent Sikh state called Khalistan (Land of the Pure) in what is presently the Indian state of Punjab.

Targets

Sikhs, Hindus, as well as Indian facilities

Also known as

Babbar Khalsa

Prominent attacks

BKI is believed to be responsible for hundreds of attacks against Indian security forces and civilians. BKI activities include armed attacks, assassinations and bombings.

  • June 23, 1985: Bombing of flight 182 of Air India, Boeing 747, above Ireland, killing 329 including 268 Canadians. This is the worst attack ever against Canadians.
  • May 30, 1986: Five BKI members arrested in Montréal for conspiracy to bomb an Air India flight.
  • August 31, 1995: A BKI member commited a suicide bombing, also killing the Prime Minister of Punjab (northwestern Indian state).
  • July 2010: Four BKI members arrested for the murder of a Sikh leader in Punjab.

References


19. Boko Haram

Logo of Boko Haram
Logo of Boko Haram

Map of Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger
Mainly present in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger

Date formed

2002

Date listed

2013-12-24

Founder

Mohammed Yusuf

Classification

Religious

Description

Boko Haram is a Salafist jihadist group operating in northern Nigeria. The group desires a political system in Nigeria modeled after how the Taliban ruled in Afghanistan. Boko Haram is suspected of recruiting and training child soldiers. The name "Boko Haram" means "Western education is sin". In March 2015, the group pledged allegiance to the Islamic State and changed its name to Wilayat Al-Sudan Al-Gharbi (West Africa province).

Objectives

Overthrow the Nigerien government and implement an Islamic state in northern Nigeria.

Targets

Christian civilians, the Nigerien government, police forces, tourists, the media and schools

Also known as

Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad (People of the Tradition of the Prophet for Preaching and Striving/Group Committed to Propagating the Prophet's Teachings and Jihad)

Prominent attacks

The group's operations include assassinations of political and religious officials, small arms attacks, improvised explosive devices and suicide bombings.

  • From 2010 to 2012: Boko Haram carried out more than 300 attacks, which killed 1,000 people.
  • August 2011: Suicide bomb attack against the United Nations compound in Abuja, Nigeria, killing 23 and injuring more than 80 people.
  • September 29, 2013: Attack at the College of Agriculture in Gujba: 40 students killed.
  • February 16, 2014: Izghe, Nigeria massacre: 106 villagers killed.
  • April 15, 2014: More than 200 students kidnapped from a girls’ school in Chibok, in northeast Nigeria.

References


20. Caucasus Emirate

Flag of the Caucasus Emirate
Flag of the Caucasus Emirate

Dokku Umarov
Founder Dokku Umarov

Ali Taziev
Ali Taziev (front), also known as Magas, a suspected rebel of the Caucasus Emirate.

Map of North Caucasus
Mainly present in North Caucasus

Date formed

2007

Date listed

2013-12-24

Founder

Dokku Umarov

Classification

Separatist/Religious

Description

The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria declared its independence from the Soviet Union in October 1991. In its initial stages, the Republic of Ichkeria focused on the independence of Chechnya, but with time the rebellion became more Islamist. On October 31, 2007 the President of Ichkeria Dokka Umarov proclaimed an Emirate in the Caucasus with the objective of imposing Sharia law in North Caucasus. The group adopted a territorial division model based on the one used by AIG/AQIM, that is a territorial division by Wilaya (administrative territory), which is also found in Sahel.

Each Wilaya is ruled by an emir chosen by the Majlis al-choura (Advisory Council). The Islamic Emirate of the Caucasus is composed of the following Wilayas:

  1. Daghestan;
  2. Nokhchiyko (Chechnya);
  3. Kabardino - Balkaria;
  4. Ghalghaycho (Ingushetia and North Ossetia);
  5. Nogai Steppes.

Objectives

Expel Russians from the North Caucasus republics, overthrow the secular governments in the North Caucasus republics and establish an Islamic emirate governed under Sharia law.

Targets

Russian civilians and officials

Also known as

Imarat Kavkaz and Islamic Emirate of the Caucasus

Prominent attacks

The Caucasus Emirate has carried out terrorist activities in Russia and the North Caucasus republics that range from ambushes with small arms, targeted assassinations using snipers, improvised explosive devices and suicide bombings. Since its formation, the network has carried out almost daily attacks throughout the North Caucasus republics and within Russia itself, resulting in the death and injury of many citizens and security personnel.

  • March 29, 2010: Suicide bombings perpetrated by two women in the Moscow subway: 39 killed and over 100 injured.
  • January 24, 2011: Suicide bombing committed in the busiest arrivals concourse at the Moscow airport: 37 killed and 180 injured.
  • July 2013: Video message released by Dokku Umarov calling for attacks on the Sochi Winter Olympics.

References


21. Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)

Flag of the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (
Flag of the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)

Logo of the Ejército de Liberación Nacional
Logo of the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN)

Urban rebels of the ELN
Colombian soldiers escort alleged urban rebels of the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN).

Map of Colombia
Mainly present in Colombia

Date formed

1964

Date listed

2003-04-02

Founder

Two distinct groups of Christians and Marxists joining together. The group is inspired by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara

Classification

Communist/Socialist

Description

The Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) is the second largest leftist rebel group in Colombia after the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC). The group believes foreign involvement in Colombia's oil industry violates the country's sovereignty and foreign companies are unfairly exploiting Colombia's natural resources.

Objectives

Seize power for the people and establish a revolutionary government.

Targets

The Colombian oil industry, political figures and foreign workers in Colombia.

Also known as

National Liberation Army and the Army of National Liberation

Prominent attacks

ELN activities include kidnapping, hijacking, bombing, extortion and guerrilla warfare. In its attacks, the ELN primarily targets the Colombian oil industry, events and political figures. The group annually conducts hundreds of kidnappings for ransom.

References


22. Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)

Logo of Euskadi Ta Askatasuna
Logo of Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA)

Banner in favour of pro-independence armed Basque group ETA reading in Basque: "Fight is the way".
Banner in favour of pro-independence armed Basque group ETA reading in Basque: "Fight is the way".

Map of Spain and France
Mainly present in Spain and France

Date formed

1959

Date listed

2003-04-02

Founder

Product of a merger between members of the Ekin (Action) underground magazine and dissenting members of the Basque Nationalist Party

Classification

Marxist/Socialist/ Nationalist/Separatist

Description

The Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) is headquartered in the Basque provinces of Spain and France. ETA has evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to the most powerful of the Basque terrorist groups.

After being denied participation in the elections, being harassed by the police and the justice system and having most of its members thrown in prison, the group decided in 2011 to cease its armed activity definitively, thereby declaring a permanent ceasefire, but without disarming the group.

Objective

Create an independent Basque state that would contain the six Basque provinces of Spain and France, as well as the Navarra province of Spain.

Targets

Spanish and French interests domestically and abroad, Spanish Government officials, security and military forces, politicians and judicial figures

Also known as

Basque Homeland and Liberty, Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna, Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna, Basque Nation and Liberty, Basque Fatherland and Liberty and Basque Homeland and Freedom

Prominent attacks

ETA activities include bombings, assassinations and kidnappings. The ETA is said to have killed over 800 people and carried out some 1,600 terrorist attacks since its formation.

References


23. Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC)

Logo of FARC
Logo of Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC)

A member of FARC
A member of las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC)

A FARC rebel stands guard on a hill
A Revolutionary FARC rebel stands guard on a hill before the release of two hostages in Colombia.

Map of Colombia
Mainly present in Colombia

Date formed

1964

Date listed

2003-04-02

Founder

Colombian Communist Party

Classification

Communist/Socialist

Description

The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) is Colombia's oldest, largest and best-equipped leftist insurgency group. The FARC is known for drug trafficking and many kidnappings of foreigners. Both FARC and the Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN) are members of the Simon Bolivar Guerrilla Coordination Board.

Objectives

Overthrow the current government in Colombia and replace it with a leftist, anti-American regime that would force all United States interests out of Colombia and Latin America.

Targets

Colombian political, military and economic figures, and foreign citizens kidnapped for ransom.

Also known as

Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia-Ejército del Pueblo, FARC-EP), National Finance Commission (Comisión Nacional de Finanzas) and Coordinadora Nacional Guerrillera Simon Bolivar (CNGSB)

Prominent attacks

FARC activities include bombings, hijackings, assassinations and the kidnapping of Colombian officials and Westerners.

  • February 23, 2002: Kidnapping of Ingrid Betancourt, who was rescued 6 and a half years later by Colombian security forces in a high-profile operation.
  • 2012: 239 attacks on the energy infrastructure.

References


24. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, founder of the group Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG)

Map of Afghanistan
Mainly present in Afghanistan

Date formed

Date listed

2005-05-24

Founder

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, former Afghanistan Prime Minister

Classification

Religious

Description

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar is the leader of the political party Hezbe Islami Gulbuddin (HIG). He served as Afghanistan’s prime minister from 1993 to 1994. He espouses an extreme Islamist anti-Western ideology. Hekmatyar has declared his intention to wage jihad against foreign troops and interests in Afghanistan until all occupation forces are driven out. In 2006, Hekmatyar pledged allegiance to Al Qaida leader Usama Bin Laden and vowed to join Al Qaida's holy war.

Objectives

Overthrow the Afghani administration and create an Islamic state.

Targets

Afghani administration and authorities, foreign and Western interests in Afghanistan.

Also known as

Gulabudin Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin Khekmatiyar, Gulbuddin Hekmatiar, Gulbuddin Hekmartyar, Gulbudin Hekmetyar, Golboddin Hikmetyar and Gulbuddin Hekmetyar

Prominent attacks

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar has perpetrated indiscriminate attacks against civilians, government officials and foreign officers.

References


25. Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's faction of the Hezb-e Islami, Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG)

Logo of Hezb-e Islami
Logo of Hezb-e Islami

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, founder of Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG)

Map of Afghanistan
Mainly present in Afghanistan

Date formed

1977

Date listed

2006-10-23

Founder

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, former Afghanistan Prime Minister

Classification

Religious

Description

Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's faction of the Hezb-e Islami, Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG), espouses a radical Islamist anti- Western ideology. Hekmatyar's men were reputed to be the most effective mujahideen group to fight against the Soviet occupation and the most extreme of all Afghan fighters. Drawing support from Pakistan, HIG now has a presence in much of Afghanistan and is an important component of resistance forces in the country. HIG is known to cooperate with Al Qaida and the Taliban.

Objectives

Overthrow the Afghan government, eliminate all Western influence in Afghanistan and create an Islamic state.

Targets

The United States, its coalition partners, the Afghan Transitional Administration, the personnel and facilities of the United Nations and NGOs

Also known as

N/A

Prominent attacks

HIG has a history of engaging in terrorist activities including bombings, suicide bombings, armed attacks, killings, torture and kidnappings. HIG often targets civilians, journalists, foreign aid workers and Afghan or foreign officials.

References


26. Hamas (Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamiya) ("Islamic Resistence Movement")

Logo of Hamas
Logo of Hamas

Sheikh Ahmed Yassin
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, founder

Fighters from Ezzedine Al-Qassam Brigades, the armed wing of the Hamas movement
Fighters from Ezzedine Al-Qassam Brigades, the armed wing of the Hamas movement

Emblem of the Ezzedine Al-Qassam Brigades
Emblem of the Ezzedine Al-Qassam Brigades

Map of Gaza Strip and the West Bank
Mainly present in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank

Date formed

Late 1987, during the first Intifada

Date listed

2002-11-27

Founder

Sheikh Ahmed Yassin

Classification

Nationalist/Religious

Description

Hamas, the Arabic acronym for the group Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamiya, is a radical Islamist-nationalist terrorist organization. It uses political and violent means to pursue its goal. In November 1993, Oslo Accords were signed between Israel and the Palestinian Authority under the auspices of the defunct President Yasser Arafat. HAMAS rejected these agreements and became a radical organisation, forming an armed wing named the Ezzedine Al-Qassam Brigades (which in fact was created in June 1991), after the man considered as being the father of Palestinian resistance.

Hamas has been one of the primary groups involved in suicide bombings aimed at Israelis since the start of the Al-Aqsa Intifada in September 2000. In 2006, Hamas participated in and won Palestinian parliamentary elections, leading to negotiations between the group and the Palestinian Authority over the establishment of a unity government. In 2007, however, Hamas overthrew the Palestinian Authority in the Gaza Strip and seized power of the coastal territory. Although the group's political leadership resides in Damascus, Hamas uses the Gaza Strip as a base for terrorist operations aimed against Israel.

Objectives

Establish an Islamic Palestinian state and base its constitution on the Koran. Combat the enemy through jihad to free Palestine.

Targets

Israeli administration and interests, Israeli civilians and military

Also known as

N/A

Prominent attacks

Hamas uses various means to reach its goals, such as homemade Al-Qassam rockets, suicide-bombings and kidnappings.

  • Since 1990: Hamas has been responsible for several hundred terrorist attacks against both civilian and military targets.
  • 2000-2004: Hamas conducted 425 attacks, killing nearly 400 Israelis and wounding more than 2,000.
  • 2001-2008: Hamas launched more than 3,000 rockets and 2,500 mortar attacks into Israel.
  • June 25, 2006: Soldier Gilad Shalit was captured. The Israeli army launched Operation “Summer Rain” to mount an incursion into the Palestinian territory to free Shalit. The operation failed. Finally, on October 18, 2011 after 1,941 days in captivity, Shalit was returned to Israel. The Israeli government agreed to exchange Shalit for over 1,000 Palestinian prisoners, including 280 who had been sentenced to life for attacks that killed close to 600 Israeli civilians.

References


27. Haqqani Network

Insurgents suspected of being from the Haqqani Network.
Insurgents suspected of being from the Haqqani Network.

Map of Afghanistan
Mainly present in Afghanistan

Date formed

Mid-1970s

Date listed

2013-05-09

Founder

Djalalouddin Haqqani

Classification

Religious/Nationalist

Description

The Haqqani Network is an Afghan and Pakistani insurgent group described as one of the most powerful and violent organizations in the region. It poses a significant local threat to Afghan and coalition forces, as well as to civilians in its area of operations. The Haqqani Network has been responsible for many of the highest-profile attacks in Afghanistan. Currently, the attacks committed by the Haqqani Network create doubts about the ability of Afghan forces to protect its civilians without North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) support.

Objectives

Seek the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Afghanistan, re-establish the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan through the overthrow of the Karzai administration, control the security environment in Afghanistan and cultivate the global Jihadist movement.

Targets

Afghan authorities, civilians and foreign forces

Also known as

N/A

Prominent attacks

The Haqqani Network was the first group to adopt the use of suicide bombers for attacks in Afghanistan. The Haqqani Network specializes in coordinated attacks, using large vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (IEDs), suicide vests and swarming attacks. It has carried out a series of tactically sophisticated complex attacks, often directly assaulting coalition facilities.

References


28. Harakat ul-Mudjahidin (HuM)

Flag of Harakat ul-Mudjahidin
Flag of Harakat ul-Mudjahidin (HuM)

Map of Pakistan
Mainly present in Pakistan

Date formed

1985

Date listed

2002-11-27

Founder

Breakaway faction of Harkat-ul-Jihadal- Islami (HuJI), an anti-Soviet Islamic group

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist/ Religious

Description

Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HuM) is a Pakistan-based radical Kashmiri Islamist organization founded to fight Soviet occupation in Afghanistan. The group has links with Al Qaida, and is also a signatory to the Al Qaida-issued 1998 fatwa (religious decree) against the United States and Israel. Initially the HuM's objective was the organization of humanitarian relief for the Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

Objectives

Since the end of the war in Afghanistan, the organization has sought Pakistani rule for the Indian territory of Kashmir and also calls for jihad against America and India.

Targets

The West, India, anti-Muslim governments and all nonbelievers

Also known as

Al-Faran, Al-Hadid, Al-Hadith, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, Harakat ul- Mujahideen, Harakat al- Mujahideen, Harkat-ul-Ansar, Harakat ul- Ansar, Harakat al-Ansar, Harkat-ul-Jehad-e-Islami, Harkat Mujahideen, Harakat-ul-Mujahideen al-Almi, Holy Warriors Movement, Movement of the Mujahideen, Movement of the Helpers, Movement of Islamic Fighters, Al Qanoon, Jamiat ul-Ansar

Prominent attacks

HuM employs various methods that include hijacking as well as kidnapping and executing foreigners and Indian government officials. HuM was involved in several armed altercations with the Kashmir armed forces, leaving many victims.

  • July 1995: Five Western tourists kidnapped in Kashmir and later killed.
  • December 24, 1999: Hijacking of an Air India Airbus A300 with 160 passengers on board. Ensuing negotiations led to the release by Indian authorities of two major leaders of the organization.
  • 2002: Execution of American journalist Daniel Pearl.

References


29. Hizballah

Logo of Hizballah
Logo of Hizballah

portrait of Hassan Nasrallah
A portrait of Hassan Nasrallah, chief of Hizballah

Map of Lebanon
Mainly present in Lebanon

Date formed

1982

Date listed

2002-12-10

Founder

Group formed as an offshoot of a Shia political movement in Lebanon

Classification

Nationalist/Religious

Description

Hizballah is a radical Shia group ideologically inspired by the Iranian revolution. Formed in response to Israel's invasion of Lebanon, Hizballah is one of the most technically capable terrorist groups in the world. While the other Lebanese militias disarmed at the end of Lebanon's civil war in 1990, Hizballah continued to fight, waging guerrilla warfare against Israeli troops stationed in southern Lebanon. Following Israel's withdrawal from Lebanon in 2000, Hizballah attacks against Israeli forces continued, concentrated on the disputed Shebaa Farms area.

Objectives

Liberate Jerusalem, destroy Israel and, ultimately, establish a revolutionary Shia Islamic state in Lebanon, modelled after Iran.

Targets

Israel and its allies

Also known as

Hizbullah, Hizbollah, Hezbollah, Hezballah, Hizbullah, The Party of God, Islamic Jihad (Islamic Holy War), Islamic Jihad Organization, Islamic Resistance, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine, Ansar al-Allah (Followers of God/ Partisans of God/God's Helpers), Ansarollah (Followers of God/Partisans of God/God's Helpers), Ansar Allah (Followers of God/Partisans of God/God's Helpers), Al-Muqawamah al- Islamiyyah (Islamic Resistance), Organization of the Oppressed, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of Right Against Wrong and Followers of the Prophet Muhammed

Prominent attacks

Hizballah has carried out some of the most infamous terror attacks of the Lebanese civil war, including:

  • October 23, 1983: The suicide bombings of the barracks of United States Marines and French paratroopers in Beirut, killing 241 American marines and 58 French paratroopers.
  • June 14, 1985: The hijacking of the Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 847, resulting in the death of a US Navy diver and 39 Americans held hostage over a three-week period.
  • July 12, 2006: Hizballah kidnapped two Israeli soldiers and killed eight others provoking a war that lasted 34 days.
  • July 18, 2012: A tourist bus is the target of a suicide attack at the Burgas airport, in Bulgaria. National authorities have confirmed that Hizballah is responsible. One of the main suspects is a Lebanese-Canadian man.

References


30. International Relief Fund for the Afflicted and Needy – Canada (IRFAN)

Logo of IRFAN
Logo of the International Relief Fund for the Afflicted and Needy – Canada (IRFAN)

Map of Canada
Mainly present in Canada

Date formed

2007

Date listed

2014-04-24

Founder

Unknown

Classification

Charitable organization, Religious

Description

International Relief Fund for the Afflicted and Needy – Canada (IRFAN) is a not-for-profit organization operating in Canada. Between 2005 and 2009, IRFAN-Canada transferred approximately $14.6 million worth of resources to various organizations with links to Hamas.

Objectives

Humanitarian assistance to Palestinians in West Bank and Gaza. Fundraising in support of populations in need or affected by natural disasters.

Also known as

International Relief Fund for the Afflicted and Needy, International Relief Fund for the Afflicted and Needy (Canada), IRFAN, IRFAN – Canada, IRFAN Society

References


31. International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)

Logo of ISYF
Logo of the International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)

Leaders of ISYF
Leaders of International Sikh Youth Federation

Map of India
Mainly present in India

Date formed

1984

Date listed

2003-06-18

Founder

The All India Sikh Student Federation (AISSF), a group of Sikh students in the United Kingdom

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist/ Religious

Description

The International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF) is a Sikh organization that was founded in 1984 in the United Kingdom as an international branch of the All India Sikh Students' Federation (AISSF), with centres in several countries, including Canada. The ISYF collaborates and/or associates with a number of Sikh terrorist organizations, including Babbar Khalsa.

Objectives

Liberate the Sikh nation and establish an independent Sikh state called Khalistan.

Targets

Indian political figures and moderate members of the Sikh community

Also known as

N/A

Prominent attacks

Since 1984, its members have been engaged in terrorist attacks, assassinations and bombings.

References


32. Islamic Army of Aden (IAA)

Abu Bakr al-Mehdar alias Abu Hassan
Head of the Islamic Army of Aden, Abu Bakr al-Mehdar alias Abu Hassan

Map of Yemen
Mainly present in Yemen

Date formed

1994

Date listed

2002-11-27

Founder

Qassem al-Rimi

Classification

Religious

Description

The Islamic Army of Aden (IAA) is a Yemen-based organization that emerged publicly in mid-1998 when the group released a series of communiques that expressed support for Usama Bin Laden and appealed for the overthrow of the Yemeni government and operations against US and other Western interests in Yemen. Combatting Western influences both in Yemen and in the wider Islamic world, the IAA opposes the use of Yemeni ports and bases by the United States and other Western countries. It has also called for the expulsion of Western forces from the Gulf of Aden. The IAA has links to other terrorist groups, including Al Qaida.

Objectives

Overthrow of the Yemeni government and create an Islamist theocracy.

Targets

Yemeni government, American and foreign interests in Yemen

Also known as

Islamic Army of Aden-Abyan (IAAA), the Aden-Abyan Islamic Army (AAIA), Aden Islamic Army, Islamic Aden Army, Muhammed's Army/ Army of Mohammed and the Jaish Adan Al Islami

Prominent attacks

Guided by these goals, the IAA has used violent tactics to achieve its objectives, including targeting foreigners and political representatives of foreign states.

  • December 1998: The group kidnaps 16 British, American and Australian tourists in southern Yemen.
  • October 2000: Bombing of the British Embassy in Sanaa.

References


33. Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU)

Resident sitting in front of posters showing alleged IMU fighters
Resident sitting in front of posters with photos, some of which showing wanted alleged fighters of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.

Map of Uzbekistan
Mainly present in Uzbekistan

Date formed

1998

Date listed

2003-04-02

Founder

Coalition of Islamic militants in Uzbekistan and other states in Central Asia

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist/Religious

Description

The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) is closely affiliated with Al Qaida and, under the leadership of Tohir Yoldashev, has embraced Usama Bin Laden’s anti-US, anti-Western agenda. In 2015, the group swore allegiance to the Islamic State.

Objectives

Overthrow the government of Uzbekistan and establish an Islamic state across Central Asia.

Targets

Westerners and the government of Uzbekistan

Also known as

O'zbekiston Islomiy Harakati, Harakat ul-Islamiyyah, Islamic Movement of Turkestan, Islamic Party of Turkestan (IPT) and IMU-IPT

Prominent attacks

The IMU has employed kidnapping, armed attacks against government facilities, cross-border incursions and coordinated efforts with other terrorist groups, such as Al Qaida.

In recent years, the IMU has participated in attacks on US and Coalition soldiers in Afghanistan.

References


34. Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps' Qods Force

Logo of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps’ Qods Force
Logo of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps’ Qods Force

Map of Iran and neighbouring countries
Mainly present in Iran and neighbouring countries

Date formed

Late 1990s

Date listed

2012-12-17

Founder

The Supreme Leader of Iran

Classification

Nationalist/Religious Shia

Description

The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps' Qods Force is the clandestine branch of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) responsible for extraterritorial operations, and for exporting the Iranian Revolution through activities such as facilitating terrorist operations.

Objectives

Create a pan-Islamic empire, liberate Palestine and annihilate Israel.

Targets

Israel

Also known as

Pasdaran-e Enghelab-e Islami (Pasdaran), Sepah-e Qods, Qods/Quds, al Quds, al Quds Force, Qods/Quds Force, Qods Corps, Jerusalem Corps, Jerusalem Force and Qods Force

Prominent attacks

The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps' Qods Force provides arms, funding and paramilitary training to extremist groups, including the Taliban, Lebanese Hizballah, Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC).

References


35. Islamic State

Flag of the Islamic State
Flag of the Islamic State

Jordanian protesters tear a dummy representing the leader of the Islamic State
Jordanian protesters tear a dummy representing the leader of the Islamic State (IS) jihadist group, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (portrait).

Map of Iraq and Syria
Mainly present in Iraq and Syria

Date formed

Early 1990s, under the name Bayat al Imam

Date listed

2012-08-20

Founder

Abu Musab al-Zarqawi

Classification

Religious

Description

The Islamic State was created in 2006 when Al Qaida in Iraq formed the Mujahideen Consultative Council (majlis Al- Choura) in Iraq. In October 2006, the Council proclaimed the "Islamic State in Iraq” (ISI). In April 2013, ISI became the "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant" (ISIL) or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS/Daesh), and finally became the Islamic State (IS) in June 2014. IS is a Sunni group active mainly in Syria and Iraq.

Objectives

Establish a Caliphate, overthrow the governments in Iraq and Syria, and establish an Islamic state based on the Sharia (Islamic law).

Targets

Syria and Iraq military forces, the coalition forces, civilian Muslims (Shias and Sunnis), Christians and other minority religious groups

Also known as

Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, ISIL, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, ISIS, Al-Dawla Al-Islamiya fi al-Iraq wa al-Sham, Al Qaida in Iraq, al-Qaida in Iraq, Al-Qaeda in Iraq, Al Qaeda in Iraq, AQI, AQI-Zarqawi, al- Tawhid, al-Tawhid and al-Jihad, Kateab al-Tawhid, Brigades of Tawhid, Monotheism and Jihad Group, Al Qaida of the Jihad in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida of Jihad in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaeda in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida of Jihad Organization in the Land of the Two Rivers, Al-Qaida Group of Jihad in Iraq, Al-Qa'ida of Jihad in Iraq, Al-Qaida Group of Jihad in the Land of the Two Rivers, The Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers, The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in the Land of the Two Rivers, The Organization of al-Jihad's Base of Operations in Iraq, The Organization of al-Jihad's Base in Iraq, The Organization of al-Jihad's Base in the Land of the Two Rivers, The Organization Base of Jihad/ Country of the Two Rivers, The Organization Base of Jihad/ Mesopotamia, Al-Qaida in Mesopotamia, Tanzim Qa'idat Al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn, Tanzim al-Qaeda al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidain, Tanzeem Qa'idat al Jihad/Bilad al Raafidaini, Jama'at Al-Tawhid Wa'al- Jihad, JTJ, Islamic State of Iraq, Islamic State in Iraq, ISI, Mujahidin Shura Council, Unity and Holy Struggle, Unity and Holy War, Unity and Jihad Group, al-Zarqawi Network, Daesh, Daech

Prominent attacks

The Islamic State's most prominent attacks have been suicide vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, improvised explosive devices, armed attacks, hostage takings, beheadings and executions of prisoners by burning or shooting.

  • August 19, 2014: The Islamic State released a video entitled "A Message to America" showing the assassination of journalist James Foley.
  • September 2, 2014: Release of a video showing the beheading of American journalist Steven Sotloff.
  • September 13, 2014: Release on the Internet of a video entitled "Message to the Allies of America" showing the beheading of British aid worker David Cawthorne Haines.
  • October 3, 2014: Release of a video showing the beheading of British aid worker Alan Henning.
  • November 12, 2015: Double suicide bombing that left close to 200 people injured and 41 dead in a Shiite residential area of Beirut in Lebanon.
  • November 13, 2015: Central Paris was the scene of a series of coordinated shootings and suicide attacks. Suicide bombers detonated explosions outside the France stadium, as well as terraces and restaurants in the 10th and 11th districts and the Bataclan concert hall, killing 130 people and injuring 352.
  • March 22, 2016: Three suicide-bombings took place at the airport and subway in Brussels, Belgium. These attacks resulted in 32 persons dead and 340 injured. The investigation shows that the individuals who conducted these attacks were related to those involved in the Paris bombings a few months earlier.

References


36. Islamic State – Sinai Province (ISSP)

Logo of ISPP
Logo of Islamic State – Sinai Province (ISSP)

Map of Egypt and Gaza Strip
Mainly present in Egypt (mainly in the Sinai area) and the Gaza Strip

Date formed

2011

Date listed

2015-04-07

Founder

Ibrahim Mohamed Farag Abu Eita

Classification

Religious

Description

This group, formerly known as Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis, first appeared during the Egyptian revolution in 2011. The ISSP is a Sunni Salafist Islamist extremist group. Since the removal of Mohamed Morsi from power in 2013, ISSP has been mainly targeting Egyptian institutions. The group carries out its acts of violence against Israel and the Government of Egypt from the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, where it is based. ISSP carried out many attacks against security forces, killing hundreds of officers.

In November 2014, ISSP pledged allegiance to the Islamic State and became one of its official branches, renaming itself Wilayat al-Sina (Province of Sinai). It is estimated that this group is one of the most directly associated to the Islamic State outside of Iraq and Syria. It is alleged that ISSP receives logistical support from the mother organization, and that leaders of both groups are in contact.

Objectives

The primary objectives of the group are the creation of an Islamic state in Egypt, the destruction of Israel and the implementation of the Sharia on its territory. ISSP shares many of Islamic State’s objectives.

Targets

The Government of Egypt, Israel and Western interests in the area, as well as tourist sites, embassies and the media.

Also known as

Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis; Ansar Jerusalem; Islamic State – Sinai State

Prominent attacks

  • July 22, 2012: The group detonated bombs on an Egyptian pipeline exporting gas to Jordan and Israel.
  • September 5, 2013: A ISSP suicide bomber targeted an armored convoy in Cairo, attempting to assassinate the Interior Minister of Egypt. The Minister survived, but 21 people were killed. One month later, the group assassinated Lieutenant Colonel Mohammed Mabrouk, an Egyptian senior counterterrorism official, in Cairo.
  • December 25, 2013: The group attacked an Egyptian police building in Mansoura, Egypt, with a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), killing 19 people.
  • February 16, 2014: ISSP bombed a tour bus on the Israel-Egypt border. The explosion killed five people, including four South Koreans.
  • October 24, 2014: ISSP attacked soldiers with a car bomb, killing 31.
  • October 31, 2015: Explosion of Russian Metrojet flight 9,268, an Airbus A321, in Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, killing 224 people.

References


37. Jabhat Al-Nusra

Flag of Jabhat Al-Nusra
Flag of Jabhat Al-Nusra

Jabhat Al-Nusra rebel fighters
Jabhat Al-Nusra rebel fighters taking control of Raqqa, Syria

Anti-Syrian President Bashar al-Assad protesters
Anti-Syrian President Bashar al-Assad protesters holding the Jabhat Al-Nusra flag.

Map of Syria
Mainly present in Syria

Date formed

2012-01-23

Date listed

2013-11-07

Founder

Group of Sunni Islamist mujahideen

Classification

Nationalist/Religious

Description

Jabhat Al-Nusra is an Al Qaida affiliated Sunni militant Islamist group in Syria. The group announced its creation during the Syrian Civil War.

Objectives

Overthrow Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's Ba'athist regime and establish an Islamic state in Syria.

Targets

Bashar al-Assad's government and soldiers

Also known as

Jabhet al-Nusra, The Victory Front, Al-Nusrah Front for the People of the Levant, Jabhat Al-Nusra li-Ahl al-Sham min Mujahedi al-Sham fi Sahat al-Jihad (The Support Front for the People of the Levant by the Levantine Mujahedin on the Battlefields of Jihad), the Front for the Defense of the Syrian People and the Front for the Support of the Syrian People

Prominent attacks

Jabhat Al-Nusra has claimed responsibility for nearly 600 attacks – such as ambushes, kidnappings, assassinations, improvised explosive device attacks and suicide bombings – in major city centers including Damascus, Aleppo, Hamah, Dara, Homs, Idlib and Dayr al-Zawr. During these attacks, numerous Syrians civilians have been killed.

References


38. Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)

Flag of JeM
Flag of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM)

Maulana Massood Azhar
Maulana Masood Azhar, founder of the Islamic militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed

Map of Pakistan
Mainly present in Pakistan

Date formed

March 2000

Date listed

2002-11-27

Founder

Masood Azhar

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist/Religious

Description

Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) is an Islamist extremist group based in Pakistan. It was founded by Masood Azhar upon his release from prison in exchange for the 155 hostages on an Indian Airlines plane hijacked in December 1999.

Objectives

Free Jammu and Kashmir from Indian rule, absorb the areas into Pakistan and establish an Islamic state in the country.

Targets

Indian government and security forces

Also known as

Jaish-i-Mohammed (Mohammad, Muhammad, Muhammed), Jaishe- Mohammad (Muhammed), Jaish-e-Mohammad Mujahideen ETanzeem, Jeish-e-Mahammed, Army of Mohammed, Mohammed's Army, Tehrik Ul-Furqaan, National Movement for the Restoration of Pakistani Sovereignty and Army of the Prophet

Prominent attacks

JeM is committed to using indiscriminate terror tactics to achieve its objectives, including targeting foreigners and political representatives of foreign states.

References


39. Jaysh Al-Muhajirin Wal-Ansar (JMA)

Logo of JMA
Logo of Jaysh Al-Muhajirin Wal-Ansar (JMA)

Abu Omar al-Shishani
Abu Omar al-Shishani, founder of Jaysh Al-Muhajirin Wal-Ansar

Map of Syria
Mainly present in Syria

Date formed

2012

Date listed

2014-10-30

Founder

Abu Omar al-Shishani

Classification

Religious

Description

Jaysh Al-Muhajirin Wal-Ansar (JMA) is a Sunni jihadist militant group formed in early 2012 and operating primarily in the Aleppo area of northern Syria. JMA is essentially composed of Chechen fighters. This entity is close to the Jabhat Al-Nusra, the Al Qaida branch in Syria. Note that this group has not pledged allegiance to the Islamic state, which often leads to fratricidal struggles between the two terrorist groups.

Objectives

Topple Syrian president Bashar al-Assad's government.

Targets

Bashar al-Assad's government and soldiers.

Also known as

Jaish al-Muhajireen wal Ansar, Jaysh al-Muhajireen wa'l-Ansar, Army of Migrants and Supporters, Army of the Emigrants and Helpers, Muhajireen Brigade, Mujahideen Army

Prominent attacks

JMA's tactics include the use of large suicide vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, ground assaults, hostage taking and kidnapping of foreign nationals and Syrian civilians loyal to Assad.

References

  • Public Safety Canada - JMA
  • Integrated Criminal Intelligence Unit (ICIU). Jaysh Al-Mouhajirine Wal Ansar, Royal Canadian Mounted Police (November 2014).

40. Jemaah Islamiyyah (JI)

Hilarion del Rosario Santos III
Terror suspect Hilarion del Rosario Santos III from Jemaah Islamiyyah (JI)

Map of Indonesia
Mainly present in Indonesia

Date formed

1993

Date listed

2003-04-02

Founders

Abdullah Sungkar and Abu Bakar Bashir

Classification

Religious

Description

Jemaah Islamiyyah (JI) has its roots in Darul Islam, a violent radical movement that advocated the establishment of Islamic law (Sharia) in Indonesia. JI subscribes to a Salafist interpretation of Islam and has had cells throughout much of southeast Asia. Although JI began conducting attacks in 1999, the network’s existence was discovered in late 2001 after Singaporean authorities disrupted a cell that was planning to attack targets associated with the US Navy.

Objective

Establish a caliphate spanning Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Thailand, Singapore, Brunei and the southern Philippines.

Targets

Anyone it sees as an enemy of Islam, waging jihad against them on a regional and international scale.

Also known as

Jemaa Islamiyah, Jema'a Islamiyya, Jema'a Islamiyyah, Jema'ah Islamiyah, Jema'ah Islamiyyah, Jemaa Islamiya, Jemaa Islamiyya, Jemaah Islamiyya, Jemaa Islamiyyah, Jemaah Islamiah, Jemaah Islamiyah, Jemaah Islamiyyah, Jemaah Islamiya, Jamaah Islamiyah, Jamaa Islamiya, Jemaah Islam, Jemahh Islamiyah, Jama'ah Islamiyah, Al-Jama'ah Al Islamiyyah, Islamic Group and Islamic Community

Prominent attacks

  • October 12, 2002: Attacks against two nightclubs in Bali that killed 202 people.
  • August 5, 2003: Car bombing of the JW Marriott hotel in Jakarta that killed 12 people.
  • September 9, 2004: Bombing of the Australian Embassy in Jakarta that killed 9 people and wounded 150 more.
  • July 17, 2009: Separated bombings, minutes apart of the JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton Hotels in Jakarta, killing 7 and wounding 50.

References


41. Kahane Chai (Kach)

Flag of Kahane Chai
Flag of Kahane Chai (KACH)

An Israeli right wing activist holds up the flag of the Kahane Chai
An Israeli right wing activist holds up the flag of the Kahane Chai movement.

Map of Israel
Mainly present in Israel

Date formed

December 1990

Date listed

2005-05-24

Founder

Binyamin Kahane, following the assassination of his father, Rabbi Meir Kahane

Classification

Nationalist/Religious/Racist

Description

Kahane Chai (Kach) is a marginal, extremist Jewish entity. Kahane Chai is an offshoot of Kach and was formed following the assassination of Rabbi Meir Kahane. Kach has openly espoused violence against Arabs and the Israeli government as a viable method for establishing a religiously homogenous state.

Objectives

Restore the biblical state of Israel. Kach advocates expelling Arabs from Israel, expanding Israel's boundaries to include the occupied territories and parts of Jordan and the strict implementation of Jewish law (Halakha) in Israel.

Targets

The Israeli government, Arabs and Palestinians

Also known as

Meir's Youth, No'ar Meir Repression of Traitors, State of Yehuda, Sword of David, Dikuy Bogdim, DOV, Judea Police, Kahane Lives, Kfar Tapuah Fund, State of Judea, Judean Legion, Judean Voice, Qomemiyut Movement, Way of the Torah and Yeshiva of the Jewish Idea.

Prominent attacks

Its activities have included threats to government officials and infrastructures, grenade attacks, armed violence and bombings.

  • February 25, 1994: During the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron, Dr. Baruch Goldstein, a close follower of the Kahane Chai movement, killed 29 Palestinian Muslims and wounded another 125 with a machine gun.

References


42. Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK/KADEK)

Flag of the Kurdistan Workers Party
Flag of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK/KADEK)

Masked supporters of PKK
Masked supporters of Kurdish rebel group of the Kurdistan Workers Party.

Map of Kurdistan and Turkey
Mainly present in Kurdistan and Turkey

Date formed

1978

Date listed

2002-12-10

Founder

Abdullah Ocalan

Classification

Communist/Socialist, Nationalist/Separatist

Description

The Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK/KADEK) is a Kurdish political party formed as an offshoot of the Kongra-Gel, a Marxist- Leninist organization composed of separatist Turkish students. The PKK/KADEK has led a campaign of guerrilla warfare and terrorism, especially in Turkey and in northern Iraq. The PKK initiated its first armed attacks in 1984 and went on to kill over 30,000 people. In the early 1990s, in an effort to gain the support of voters, the PKK abandoned its previous strategy of attacking Turkish civilians, focusing instead on the government and tourists. The PKK also plays an active role in the conflict in Syria and Iraq.

Objectives

Establish an independent Kurdish state in southeast Turkey, in northern Iraq (a region that is part of the traditional territory of the Kurdish people) and in certain parts of Iran and Syria.

Targets

The Turkish military and diplomats

Also known as

Kurdistan Workers Party, Partya Karkeren Kurdistan, Kurdistan Labor Party, Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy Congress, KADEK, Kurdistan People's Congress, Kurdistan Halk Kongresi (KHK), People's Congress of Kurdistan, Kongra-Gel

Prominent attacks

Its activities include attacking the Turkish military, diplomats and Turkish businesses at home and in some western European cities.

References


43. Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ)

Flag of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
Flag of Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ)

Malik Ishaq and his colleagues.
Malik Ishaq, center, a leader of the banned Sunni Muslim group Lashkar-e- Jhangvi and his colleagues.

Map of Pakistan
Mainly present in Pakistan

Date formed

1996

Date listed

2003-06-18

Founder

Riaz Basra

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist

Description

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) is a radical Sunni Islamist group in Pakistan that is reportedly linked to Al Qaida. It is reputed as being one of the most violent Islamist extremist organizations in Pakistan. The group was banned from Pakistan by the government in 2001. Many of its members then sought refuge with the Taliban in Afghanistan.

Objectives

Establish an Islamic Sunni state in Pakistan based on Sharia law and have all Shias declared non-believers.

Targets

The Pakistani government and all Shias

Also known as

Jamaat-ud-Dawa (JuD) (Society for Preaching), al-Anfal Trust, Tehrik-e-Hurmate-e-Rasool, al Mansoorian (The Victorious), Army of the Pure, Paasban-e-Kashmir (Kashmir Brigade), Paasban-i-Ahle-Hadith (Ahle-Hadith Brigade), Falah-i-Insaniat Foundation (FIF), Idara Khidmat-e-Khalq, Lashkar-i-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Jhangvie, Laskar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkare Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Jhangwi, Lashkar-i-Jhangwi, Jhangvi Army, Lashkar-e Jhangvi, Lashkar Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Jhanvi (LeJ), Lashkar-i-Jangvi, Lashkar e Jhangvi, Lashkar Jangvi, Laskar e Jahangvi

Prominent attacks

Responsible for killing hundreds of Shias since its formation in 1996, LJ was behind some of the worst incidents of sectarian violence in Pakistan's history.

  • March 2002: Bombing of a bus - 15 people killed, including 11 French technicians.
  • March 17, 2002: Bombing during a church service - 5 people killed and 40 people injured.
  • 2003: A group of LJ members attacked a Shia mosque in Quetta, killing at least 47 people and wounding many more.
  • January 10, 2013: Bombing in Pakistan - 130 killed and 270 injured.
  • February 16, 2013: Bombing in Pakistan - 110 killed and 200 injured, mostly Shia people.

References


44. Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT)

Flag of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba
Flag of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT)

Logo of Lashkar-e- Tayyiba
Logo of Lashkar-e- Tayyiba (LeT)

Hafiz Mohammad Saeed
Hafiz Mohammad Saeed, founder of Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT)

Map of India
Mainly present in India

Date formed

1989

Date listed

2003-06-18

Founder

Hafiz Mohammad Saeed

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist/Religious

Description

Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LeT) (Army of the Pure) is a Pakistanbased, radical organization established in the late 1980s that operates in the Indian states of Kashmir and Jammu. LeT is one of the largest and most active terrorist organizations in South Asia. The group is also allegedly linked to Al Qaida.

Objective

End India's rule of the states of Kashmir and Jammu.

Targets

Civilians and the Indian security forces in the states of Kashmir and Jammu

Also known as

Lashkar-e-Toiba, Lashkar-i-Toiba (LiT), Lashkar-i-Taiba (Holy Regiment), Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (LT) (Army of the Righteous), Lashkare- Taibyya, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba (Army of the Pure and Righteous), Lashkar-e-Taiba (Righteous Army), Lashkar-Taiba (Army of the Good), Lashkar e Toiba, Lashkar e Taiba, Lashkar-E-Tayyaba, Lashkar e Tayyiba

Prominent attacks

LeT's activities include suicide bombings and armed attacks on civilians, government officials and the Indian security forces.

  • November 26, 2008: Terror attack in Mumbai, India, targeting two luxury hotels and a Jewish centre. The event lasted over 60 hours, leaving over 180 people dead and over 300 injured.

References


45. Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

Flag of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Flag of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

Map of Sri Lanka
Mainly present in Sri Lanka

Date formed

1976

Date listed

2006-04-08

Founder

Velupillai Prabhakaran

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist

Description

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a Sri Lankan based terrorist organization, is the most powerful Tamil organization in Sri Lanka. Over the years, the LTTE has waged a violent secessionist campaign with the help of ground, air and naval forces, as well as a dedicated suicide bomber wing. The LTTE has also had an extensive network of fundraisers, propagandists and arms procurers operating in Sri Lanka and within the Tamil diaspora. It should be noted that the World Tamil Movement (WTM) is the financial arm of the LTTE in Canada. Although the LTTE was militarily defeated in May 2009, subversion, destabilization and fundraising continue, particularly in the diaspora.

Objective

Establish an independent homeland called "Tamil Eelam" for Sri Lanka's ethnic Tamil minority.

Targets

Sri Lankan government and civilian targets

Also known as

The Tamil Tigers, the Eellalan Force, the Ellalan Force, the Tiger Movement, the Sangilian Force, the Air Tigers, the Black Tigers (Karum Puligal), the Sea Tigers, the Tiger Organization Security Intelligence Service (TOSIS) and the Women's Combat Force of Liberation Tigers (WCFLT)

Prominent attacks

LTTE tactics have included full military operations, terror attacks against civilian centres and political assassinations, such as the successful assassinations of Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi and Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa.

The Sri Lankan Civil War, which lasted 27 years, killed between 70,000 and 100,000 people.

References


46. Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA)

MOJWA Fighters
Fighters from the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa (MOJWA)

Map of Mali
Mainly present in Mali

Date formed

2011

Date listed

2014-06-02

Founder

Hamada Ould Mohamed Kheirou

Classification

Religious

Description

The Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa is an armed jihadist salafist group and a splinter group of Al Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb.

Objectives

Spread jihad across West Africa and establish a strict form of Sharia law.

Targets

Malian and French military

Also known as

MOJWA, Mouvement pour l'unicité et le jihad en Afrique de l'Ouest, MUJAO, Jamat Tawhid wal Jihad fi Garbi Afriqqiya and Jamaat Tawhid Wal Jihad Fi Garbi Ifriqiya

Prominent attacks

MOJWA has carried out terrorist activities including kidnappings, small arms attacks, improvised explosive devices attacks and suicide bombings.

  • March 2012: MOJWA carried out a suicide bombing on a police station in Tamanrasset, Algeria: 23 wounded.
  • May 23, 2013: Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa and Al-Muwaqi'un Bil Dima launched twin suicide attacks against a Nigerien army base and a French uranium mine in Niger, killing 25 people.

References


47. Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)

Logo of the PLF
Logo of the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)

Map of Palestine
Mainly present in Palestine

Date formed

1959

Date listed

2003-11-13

Founder

Ahmed Jibril

Classification

Leftist

Description

The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) is a small, armed splinter group allied to the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). The group operates primarily in Europe, Israel, Lebanon and other areas in the Middle East.

Objectives

Destroy the State of Israel and establish an independent Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital.

Targets

Israel

Also known as

PLF-Abu Abbas Faction, Front for the Liberation of Palestine (FLP)

Prominent attacks

During its most active period, the PLF is known to have conducted several high-profile attacks, including the October 1985 hijacking of the Italian cruise ship, Achille Lauro.

References


48. Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)

Logo of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad
Logo of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)

Map of Palestine
Mainly present in Palestine

Date formed

Late 1970s

Date listed

2002-11-27

Founder

Group of radical Palestinian activists living in Egypt

Classification

Nationalist/Religious

Description

The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) is one of the most violent Palestinian terrorist groups. The PIJ maintains that armed struggle by the Palestinian people, in tandem with active support from the Arab and Muslim worlds, is the only viable strategy for achieving its objectives. The PIJ was among the first to use suicide bomb attacks against Israel.

Objectives

Destroy Israel and liberate Palestine.

Targets

Civilians and military personnel in Israel as well as Israeli interests

Also known as

Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami fi Filistin, Saraya Al-Quds (The Jerusalem Brigades), Al-Quds Brigades, Islamic Jihad, Palestine Islamic Jihad-Shaqaqi Faction, Palestinian Islamic Jihad-Shaqaqi, PIJ-Shaqaqi Faction, PIJ-Shallah Faction, Islamic Jihad of Palestine, Islamic Jihad in Palestine, Abu Ghunaym Squad of the Hizballah Bayt Al-Maqdis, Al-Quds Squads, Al-Awdah Brigades, Islamic Jihad Palestine (IJP), Islamic Jihad – Palestine Faction and Islamic Holy War

Prominent attacks

The PIJ was very active in Lebanon in the 1980s. In April 1983, it claimed responsibility for an attack against the US embassy in Lebanon, leaving 69 victims. In October of the same year, the PIJ killed over 300 people in US and French quarters in Beirut.

  • 1995: In what was reported as one of the deadliest terrorist incidents in Israeli history, two PIJ suicide bombers executed a coordinated attack at a bus stop in Beit Lid, where 19 were killed and 61 wounded. Over the course of the past decade, most PIJ attacks have taken the form of suicide bombings or rocket firings into Israel.
  • August 2003: A bomb killed 21 people and injured more than 100 people on a bus in Jerusalem.
  • October 2003: A bomb killed 22 and injured 60 in a restaurant in Jerusalem.
  • October 2005: A bomb detonated in a market, killing five people.
  • April 2006: A bomb in Tel Aviv killed seven.
  • In 2015, the group continued its terrorist activity such as suicide bombings. The PIJ tried to provoke a third Intifada in Israel.

References


49. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)

Logo of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Logo of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)

Children carrying guns during a PFLP celebration. Children carrying guns during a Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine celebration.

Map of Palestine
Mainly present in Palestine

Date formed

1967

Date listed

2003-11-13

Founder

George Habash

Classification

Communist/Socialist, Nationalist

Description

The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) is a Marxist-Leninist group based in Palestine.

Objectives

Destroy the State of Israel and establish a communist government in Palestine.

Targets

Israeli Government and capitalism in general

Also known as

Halhul Gang, Halhul Squad, Palestinian Popular Resistance Forces, PPRF, Red Eagle Gang, Red Eagle Group, Red Eagles, Abu Ali Mustafa Brigades, Al-Jibha al-Sha'biya lil-Tahrir Filistin

Prominent attacks

During the 1970s, the group took part in some of the boldest terrorist attacks of the period, such as hijacking three civilian airliners in one day and storming the Vienna headquarters of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Since 2000, the PFLP has turned increasingly to the use of suicide bombers, guerrilla warfare tactics, car bombings and mortar strikes. The PFLP was also responsible for the first assassination of a cabinet minister in Israel's history, killing Tourism Minister Rehavam Zeevi in 2001.

References


50. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC)

Logo of PFLP-GC
Logo of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command (PFLP-GC)

Palestinian armed militants
Palestinian armed militants of the pro Syrian Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC)

Map of Syria
Mainly present in Syria

Date formed

April 1968

Date listed

2003-11-13

Founder

Ahmed Jabril

Classification

Nationalist

Description

The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC) is an Islamist Communist group based in Syria. It is a splinter faction of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The group is opposed to any negotiation with Israel and believes solely in a military solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It was the first Palestinian group to use suicide squads. Their operational similarities to Hamas have led the two organizations to coordinate their positions and cooperate.

Objectives

Establish a Palestinian state and destroy Israel.

Targets

Israeli military and civilians

Also known as

Al-Jibha Sha'biya lil-Tahrir Filistin-al-Qadiya al-Am

Prominent attacks

The PFLP-GC has used barometric bombs to blow up aircraft, parcel explosives sent through the mail as well as motorized hang-gliders in a guerrilla warfare raid into Israel. During the 1990s, the PFLP-GC limited its activities to training and equipping other terrorist groups, such as Hamas and the Palestinian Islamic Jihad.

  • February 21, 1970: Bombing of Swissair Flight 330 to Tel Aviv: 38 passengers and 9 crew members killed..
  • May 22, 1970: Bombing of an Israeli school bus: 12 killed, including 9 children and 25 injured.

References


51. Sendero Luminoso (SL)

Flag of Sendero Luminoso
Flag of Sendero Luminoso (SL)

Map of Peru
Mainly present in Peru

Date formed

Late 1960s

Date listed

2003-02-12

Founder

Abimael Guzman, alias Comrade Gonzalo

Classification

Communist/Socialist

Description

Sendero Luminoso (SL) is a splinter group of the Communist Party of Peru. SL's area of operations is limited to Peru, with most of its activities in rural areas, but some of its attacks have taken place in the capital, Lima.

Objectives

Destroy existing Peruvian institutions and replace them with a communist peasant revolutionary regime which would eliminate foreign influence from the country.

Targets

Peruvian security forces, counter-narcotics personnel, civilians and politicians

Also known as

Shining Path, Partido Comunista del Peru en el Sendero Luminoso de Jose Carlos Mariategui, Communist Party of Peru on the Shining Path of Jose Carlos Mariategui, Partido Comunista del Peru, Communist Party of Peru, The Communist Party of Peru by the Shining Path of Jose Carlos Mariategui and Marxism, Leninism, Maoism and the Thoughts of Chairman Gonzalo, Revolutionary Student Front for the Shining Path of Mariategui, Communist Party of Peru - By Way of the Shining Path of Mariategui, PCP - por el Sendero Luminoso de Mariategui, PCP and PCP-SL

Prominent attacks

Its tactics include indiscriminate bombing campaigns, political assassinations, as well as armed attacks against civilians and foreign interests in Peru and drug trafficking.

References


52. Taliban

Taliban flag
Taliban flag

Pakistani Taliban patrol
Pakistani Taliban patrol in their stronghold of Shawal in Pakistani tribal region.

Map of Afghanistan
Mainly present in Afghanistan

Date formed

1994

Date listed

2013-05-09

Founder

Group of Islamist Pakistani students

Classification

Religious

Description

The Taliban is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan that was formed in the province of Kandahar. The Taliban ruled Afghanistan under strict Islamic rule (sharia) for five years, between 1996 and 2001. Today, the Taliban has been ousted from power but has resurfaced as a non-state terrorist entity within Afghanistan. The Taliban collaborated with Usama Bin Laden (Al Qaida), allowing him to establish training camps for legions of future terrorists.

Objectives

Establish in Afghanistan the purest Islamic state in the world. Remove all foreign forces from Afghanistan and restore the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan through the overthrow of the current government.

Targets

Civilian targets, government compounds, International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)/Afghan bases, military targets in built-up urban areas, as well as infrastructure projects

Also known as

Afghan Taliban, Tahreek-i-Islami-i-Taliban Afghanistan, Movement of Islamic Students, The Taleban, the Islamic Movement of the Taliban (De Talebano Islami Ghurdzang or Tehrik) and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (De Afghanistan Islami Emarat)

Prominent attacks

The Taliban uses terrorist tactics, including the extensive use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and suicide attacks, to further its political objectives. In 2011, the Taliban was responsible for the majority of civilian casualties in Afghanistan and has been known to carry out a number of attacks on girls' schools in particular.

According to the United Nations, the Taliban was responsible for 76% of civilian casualties in Afghanistan in 2009, 75% in 2010 and 80% in 2011.

References


53. Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP)

Flag of the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan
Flag of the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP)

Map of Pakistan
Mainly present in Pakistan

Date formed

2007

Date listed

2011-07-05

Founder

Coalition of militant groups against the Pakistani army

Classification

Religious

Description

The Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) was founded in December 2007 as an umbrella organization for pro-Taliban groups operating mostly in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North West Frontier Province), Pakistan. The TTP maintains close links to Al Qaida, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) and Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM).

Objectives

Create a Taliban-style Islamic emirate under Sharia law, beginning in Pakistan's tribal areas and later extending to include Muslims elsewhere, unite pro-Taliban groups in FATA and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and assist the Afghan Taliban in their campaign against President Karzai.

Targets

The Afghan administration, US/NATO forces, Pakistani state, military and police facilities

Also known as

Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan, Tehrik-e- Taliban, Pakistani Taliban, Tehreek-e-Taliban, Tehrik Taliban-IPakistan, Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan, Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan

Prominent attacks

The TTP has conducted numerous armed, bomb and suicide attacks to achieve its objectives. The TTP has also engaged in criminal activities, such as extortion, theft, robbery and kidnapping for ransom to support its terrorist operations.

  • May 1, 2010: Car bombing attempt in New York City's Times Square.
  • October 9, 2012: Planned school-bus shooting of Malala Yousafzai, a young activist for women’s rights to education in Pakistan, who miraculously survived three bullets, including one to her head. This failed assassination attempt made the headlines worldwide. Malala was the 16th woman to receive the prestigious Nobel Peace Prize in 2014.
  • June 8, 2014: Ten terrorists from both the TTP and the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan attacked the Karachi International Airport with small arms and suicide vests, killing 26 people.
  • December 16, 2014: The Army Public School in Peshawar was stormed by seven gunmen from the TTP: 145 people were killed.

References


54. World Tamil Movement (WTM)

Logo of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
Logo of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)

Flags of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam fly above about a crowd
Flags of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam fly above about one-thousand Canadian Tamils demonstrating on Parliament Hill.

map of Canada
Present in Canada and elsewhere

Date formed

1986

Date listed

2008-06-13

Founder

Unknown

Classification

Nationalist/Separatist

Description

The World Tamil Movement (WTM) became a known and leading front organization for the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in Canada. The various offices of the WTM in Canada transfer funds to bank accounts in Sri Lanka meant for the LTTE. The leadership of the WTM acts at the direction of the LTTE and has been instrumental in fundraising in Canada on behalf of the LTTE. WTM representatives canvas areas in Canada with large Tamil populations demanding donations and have been involved in acts of intimidation and extortion to secure funds.

Objectives

Provide financial support to the LTTE organization in its activities to establish an independent nation, the "Tamil Eelam", for the Tamil minority in Sri Lanka.

Targets

Tamil populations in Canada to extort money from them.

Also known as

N/A

Prominent attacks

Funding of the terrorist group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and use of threats and intimidation against members of Tamil communities in Canada who refuse to contribute.

References