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3.3 Chemicals

Forensic Identification Services Chemical Carcinogenicity Evaluation

A tabular summary of the classification of each of the chemicals for chemicals considered to be "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk" is presented in Table 4. Since there are no reports of associations between cancers in humans or in animals due to exposure to these chemicals, and noting no evidence of theoretic risk, potential target organs are not identified. Similarly, given the expected inactivity of these chemicals with respect to carcinogenic potential, exposure limits were not sourced in the scientific literature.

Table 4 - Summary of Chemicals Classifed as "Not Reported to Have arcinogenic Potential and Without Theoretical Risk"
Chemical CAS# Use level
Acetic Acid 64-19-7 Often
Acetone 67-64-1 Seldom
Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT) 577-11-7 Rare
3-amino-phthalhydrazide (Luminol) 521-31-3 Often
Ammonium thiocyanate 1762-95-4 Rare
Nonoxynol 9016-45-9 Often
(C12-18) alkyl alcohol ethoxylate propoxylate 69227-21-0 Often
Solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates 64742-65-0 Often
Citric acid, monohydrate 5949-29-1 Rare
Cuprous chloride 7758-89-6 Not stated
Ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate 7085-85-0 In use
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 Not stated
Dodecylamine acetate 2016-56-0 Not stated
Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 Often
Ethanol 64-17-5 Often
Europium chloride 10025-76-0 Rare
Ferric nitrate 7782-61-8 Seldom
Ferrous ammonium sulfate 7783-85-9 Seldom
Fluorescein 2321-07-5 Not stated
Gold wire 7440-57-5 Not stated
Methyl Perfluoroisobutyl ether 163702-08-7 Very often
Methyl perfluorobutyl ether 163702-07-6 Very often
Isopropanol 67-63-0 Not stated
Heptane 142-82-5 Rare
Hydrochloric acid 7647-01-0 Seldom
2,3-Dihydroperfluoropentane 138495-42-8 Until 2000
1,2 indandione 16214-27-0 Seldom
Iodine 7553-56-2 Seldom
Lactic acid 50-21-5 Rare
Lycopodium powder 8023-70-9 Often
Maleic acid 110-16-7 Rare
Malic acid 6915-15-7 Rare
Methyl ethyl ketone 78-93-3 Until 2000 rare
Molybdenum disulphide 1317-33-5 Seldom
alpha-Naphthoflavone 604-59-1 Rare
Ninhydrin 485-47-2 Often
Nitric acid 7697-37-2 Not stated
Potassium thiocyanate 333-20-0 Rare
Silver nitrate 7761-88-8 Seldom
Sodium carbonate 497-19-8 In use
Sodium hydroxide 1310-73-2 Until 1985
Stearic acid 57-11-4 Often
Sulphosalicylic acid 5965-83-3 Seldom
Sulphuric acid 7664-93-9 Rare
Synperonic N 68412-54-4 Rare
Thenoyltrifluoroacetone 326-91-0 Until 2000
Zinc 7440-66-6 Specialty
Zinc chloride 7646-85-7 Until 1992

A brief assessment of each of the chemicals follows. These reviews are not intended to be comprehensive, but to show the key data involved in regulatory classifications and the underpinning of the category ascribed by Cantox.

3.3.1 Solvent-Dewaxed Heavy Paraffinic Petroleum Distillates

In general, solvent-dewaxed, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are primarily used as lubricating oils, specifically in engine oils; industrial lubricating oils; crankcase, compressor, gear, transmission, power-steering and turbine oils; metal-working oils and penetrant oils. They may also be used in sealants, antifoulants and antifoam emulsions (CCOHS, 2006a,b). There is some evidence that long-term inhalation of high concentrations of oil mists may be associated with lung cancers, but only with exposure conditions where skin cancer has also occurred (CCOHS, 2006a,b). In Europe, this class of chemicals is considered to pose some carcinogenic risk and must be labelled with the risk phrase R45 "May cause cancer" (EU IHCP, 2009d), however, in actuality the carcinogenic risk is dependent upon the refining history as severe solvent-refining or severe hydrotreatment is not expected to pose a carcinogenic risk, while untreated or mildly treated distillates are expected to be carcinogenic, due primarily to the presence of PAHs (CCOHS, 2006a,b).

3.3.2 Acetic Acid

Acetic acid is a clear, colourless liquid with a strong vinegar-like odour that is used in making drugs, dyes, plastics, food additives, and insecticides (NJHSFS, 1998a). It is not listed as being carcinogenic, and though limited data exists regarding the testing of acetic acid for carcinogenicity, the fact that is a natural body by-product in mammals and present in a variety of foods, indicates that there is limited concern for the carcinogenicity of acetic acid (BIBRA, 1993). Though there are some equivocal results in mutagenicity assays, the positive results are likely due to the lowered pH of acetic acid and not due to the acid itself (CCRIS, 1995; CCOHS, 1996). This chemical is not expected to be carcinogenic.

3.3.3 Acetone

Acetone is a colourless liquid used as a solvent in nail polish removers and to make other chemicals (NJHSFS, 1998b). Acetone was found to be negative in numerous in vitro assays and has been used as solvent control (U.S. EPA, 2003a). One epidemiology study of occupational exposure did not indicate any increase risk of cancer, while it was also found to be negative for dermal carcinogenicity in mice (ATSDR, 1994). It is classified as A4 by ACGIH (2009) or "not classifiable as a human carcinogen". Given these data, acetone was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.4 Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate (DSS)

DSS is a dispersing and solubilising agent in foods; adjuvant in tablet formation and used as a laxative/food additive (HSDB, 1995). DDS was found to be negative for mutagenicity in the Ames assay (BIBRA, 1989), but in the presence of metabolic activation, it caused chromosomal aberrations. However, it is expected that its safety profile has been sufficiently characterized in order for it to be used for human consumption (CIR, 1998) and therefore, DSS is not expected to show carcinogenic activity.

3.3.5 3-Amino-phthalhydrazide (3-APH)

Limited information exists on this chemical. 3-APH is not listed as carcinogenic in any of the regulatory databases and was found to be negative in an Ames assay and in vivo micronucleus test (NTP, 1986). On the basis of these data, 3-APH was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.6 Ammonium Thiocyanate

Limited data is available on this chemical, but it was found to be negative in an Ames assay (IUCLID, 2000b). It is not listed as carcinogenic by any regulatory body. Also, the inorganic thiocyanates do not contain structural alerts for genotoxicity or carcinogenicity (Benigni and Bossa, 2008). As a result, this chemical was categorized as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.7 Citric Acid, Monohydrate

No specific information available was available, however, citric acid is a normal part of body metabolism and of the human diet (CCOHS, 1997a) and, was therefore reasonably considered to be "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.8 Cuprous Chloride

No specific information is available on this compound, however, neither copper nor chloride, which are well-characterized, are carcinogenic. Cuprous chloride is not considered as a carcinogenic substance by an authoritative body, contains no structural alerts for genotoxicity, and, as a result, has been classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.9 Ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate

The main applications for ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate is as an adhesive in a wide range of industrial environments, including, the manufacture plastics, electronics, scientific instruments, loudspeakers, shoes, jewellery, and sports equipment, and in cable joining, manicuring, dentistry, surgery, and mortuaries (CICAD, 2001). This chemical was observed to be inactive in 2 Ames assays and in an in vivo micronucleus tests in mice and rats (NTP, 2009c; Henikel Corp., 2002). No regulatory agencies considered ethyl 2-cyanoacrylates as a carcinogenic hazard.

3.3.10 Cyclohexane

Cyclohexane is a colorless liquid with a sweet odour that is used as a paint remover, as a solvent for lacquers and resins, and in making organic materials like nylon (NJHSFS, 1994). Cyclohexane has been reported to show no activity in bacterial and mammalian cells in vitro and in animals in vivo (CSTEE, 2002). As a result, it is not expected to be carcinogenic via genotoxic mechanisms. Furthermore, cyclohexane is not considered carcinogenic by IARC, EPA, ACGIH, NTP, or any other agency.

3.3.11 Dodecylamine Acetate

Dodecylamine acetate is considered to be an inert pesticide ingredient allowed for use in non-food related products (U.S. EPA, 2009). There are not structural alerts in the chemical and it is not listed as carcinogenic by any world regulatory agencies. Given this profile, dodecylamine acetate was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.12 Ethyl Acetate

Ethyl acetate is a colorless liquid, used as a solvent, a synthetic flavouring substance and in making perfumes and dyes (NJHSFS, 2002). No human or animal carcinogenicity information is currently available. Negative results (i.e., no activity) were obtained with bone marrow cells from Chinese hamsters exposed orally to 2,500 mg/kg, and while negative results were obtained in bacteria in an Ames test, ethyl acetate produced aneuploidy (loss of chromosomes or damage to chromosomes that occurs during cell division) in one study with yeast and chromosomal aberrations (breaks and other damage to chromosomes) in Chinese hamster cells in vitro (CCOHS, 1995a). Metabolites of ethyl acetate, ethanol and acetic acid, have not been shown to be carcinogenic (CCOHS, 1995a). Ethyl acetate is not considered to be a carcinogenic substance in any regulatory jurisdiction, is in common use, and contains no structural alerts for either genotoxic or carcinogenic hazard. As a result, ethyl acetate has been considered "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk"

3.3.13 Ethanol

Ethanol is a clear liquid used as a solvent and in alcoholic beverages. Equivocal evidence for mutagenicity in animals is not considered relevant to the occupational setting (CCOHS, 2009), due to high exposure levels used in tests. Ethanol is not expected to be carcinogenic in an occupational setting, though IARC has classified the consumption of alcoholic beverages as Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans), ethanol alone has not been evaluated for carcinogenicity by IARC (IARC, 1988). Ethanol is classified as A3 by ACGIH (2009), indicating it is "not classifiable as a human carcinogen". While carcinogenic activity is seen in heavy drinkers, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that ethanol itself is carcinogenic, hence the classification as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.14 Europium Chloride

Very little information exists on the use and safety of europium chloride. The substance was not toxic when administered orally to rats at up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight for 28 days (irritation effect on stomach) (Ogawa et al., 1995). Neither elements, europium, or chloride, show evidence of carcinogenic activity. Given this and the lack, the ionic nature of the compound and lack of structural alerts, europium chloride was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.15 Gold Wire

Gold is a soft, precious metal used in jewellery, electronic, and in many special applications. Small amounts of gold are consumed in the diet. One incomplete reference (HSDB, 2004) indicated that gold powder is not oncogenic in rats, while implanted sheets of gold or injected gold particles caused an increase in tumours. The positive results observed are not relevant to occupational exposure since they are due to the fact that the gold is implanted in tissues and the tumours result from the tissue reaction to the implant. Overall, though limited testing has been conducted, gold is not considered to have any carcinogenic potential.

3.3.16 Isopropanol

Isopropanol, or isopropyl alcohol, is a colourless liquid used as a solvent and in the manufacture of many commercial products (NJHSFS, 1997b). It was shown to have no carcinogenic activity in rats and mice following chronic inhalation exposure. Isopropanol also was reported to show no activity in a wide range of assays conducted in bacteria and mammalian cell lines (CCRIS, 2008b). ACGIH (2009) have classified isopropanol as A4 "not classifiable as a human carcinogen" while IARC (1999c) has classified it in Group 3 or" Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans". Based on this profile, isopropanol was considered by Cantox as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.17 Heptane

Heptane is a clear colourless liquid with a mild gasoline-like odour and is used as an industrial solvent and in various petroleum refining processes (NJHSFS, 1997c). Though no human or animal mutagenicity/carcinogenicity data was identified in the literature, heptane was shown to be negative in the rat liver chromosome, bacterial mutation, and yeast mitotic gene conversion assays (HSDB, 2005). It also contains no structural alerts for either genotoxicity or carcinogenicity (Ashby and Tennant, 1991; Benigni and Bossa, 2008). As a result, it is not expected to be carcinogenic.

3.3.18 Sulphuric Acid

Sulphuric Acid is a clear, colorless to brown, odourless liquid that is used to make storage batteries, fertilizers, paper products, textiles, explosives, and pharmaceuticals, and in steel and iron production (NJHSFS, 2001).

Equivocal evidence for genotoxic activity has been reported in in vitro mutagenicity studies, but positive results are likely due to the pH lowering effect of the acid (OECD SIDS, 2001). No carcinogenic effect was observed in carcinogenicity studies conducted by inhalation with sulphuric acid aerosol using 3 different animal species, while small increases in tumour incidence were reported in rats and mice after chronic gastric intubation or intratracheal instillation of sulphuric acid solution (OECD SIDS, 2001). No clear conclusions can be drawn from these latter studies as they provide limited study details or used small numbers of test animals.

Significant increases in the incidences of sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were observed in a single study of workers engaged in the manufacture of sulphuric acid (IARC, 1992).

Based on the results of the human studies, IARC (1992) has classified sulphuric acid as a Group 1 substance or a "known human carcinogen" when present as part of inorganic acid mists. Likewise the ACGIH (2009) has categorized sulphuric acid s A2 (ACGIH, 2009) or a "suspected human carcinogen" when contained in inorganic acid mists. Despite the IARC (1992) and ACGIH (2009) classifications of sulphuric acid, for the present report, sulphuric acid has been categorized as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk" due to the fact that the former classifications are associated with exposure to sulphuric acid in the form of inorganic mists. However, under laboratory use conditions, exposures would be directly to spilled liquids or to vapours, not "inorganic mists". This difference is the reason for the lower "rating" of the carcinogenic potential of sulphuric acid than that expressed by either IARC (1992) or ACGIH (2009).

3.3.19 Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless to slightly yellow gas, with a strong odour, which is often used in solution and is utilized in metal processing, analytical chemistry and in the manufacture of other chemicals (NJHSFS, 1995a). There were well-conducted and reported no human epidemiology or animal carcinogenicity studies available for review. Positive and negative results have been obtained in chromosome aberration, gene mutation, sister chromatid and DNA damage assays, although the mutagenicity may be attributed to the low pH of the acid and not the acid itself (CCOHS, 2007a). A study of limited quality indicated that inhalation exposure to hydrogen chloride gas did not induce tumour in male rats (CCOHS, 2007a). This chemical is classified as A4, not classifiable as a human carcinogen by ACGIH (2009). Based on the limited data available and the long history of use of hydrochloric acid, and noting that hydrochloric acid is natural component of stomach juices, it was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.20 Nitric Acid

Nitric acid is a colorless, yellow or red fuming (smoking) liquid with a strong odour and is used in making fertilizers, dyes, explosives, and other chemicals (NJHSFS, 1995b). One study of inadequate detail and exposure to other chemicals indicated an increase in laryngeal cancer in workers exposed to nitric acid (CCOHS, 2004). No standard in vitro or in vivo mutagenicity studies were located in the literature; however, it is not listed as a carcinogen by regulatory agencies. Nitric acid is not expected to be carcinogenic.

3.3.21 Iodine

Iodine is a violet solid or shiny grey chip with a characteristic odour and is used in making dyes, antiseptics, germicides, special soaps and iodized salt (NJHSFS, 1995c). Though one in vitro chromosome aberration assay in Syrian hamster embryo cells was positive (structural changes) (CCRIS, 2006) and concentrated intake of radiolabelled iodine and derivatives concentrating in the thyroid gland, have been known to give rise to cancer in that organ (IPCS, 1990), non-radioactive iodine is not expected to be carcinogenic in an occupational setting. This is consistent with the long history of human consumption of iodinate salt, which is not associated with adverse effects including cancer. Iodine has been classified by ACGIH (2009) as not classifiable as a human carcinogen. Cantox has considered it as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.22 Lactic Acid

Lactic acid is used as a preservative, flavouring agent, pH buffering agent and is present in many foods, both naturally or as a product of microbial fermentation (CCOHS, 2000). L(+) Lactic acid is also a principal metabolic intermediate in most living organisms and occurs naturally in small quantities in the body (CCOHS, 2000). Lactic acid was negative in an Ames assay (CCRIS, 1991a) and a study of limited quality concluded that lactic acid was not tumourigenic in orally dosed female rabbits at up to 700 mg/kg body weight (CCOHS, 2000). Lactic acid is not expected to be carcinogenic. Given its natural occurrence, use in food, and the available data, lactic acid was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.23 Lycopodium Powder

Lycopodium powder, the spores produced by Lycopodium (part of the genus called club mosses), is used as a homeopathic medicine (Gibson et al., 1987). Its historical surgical use has been associated with the formation granulomatous lesions that resembled tuberculosis or neoplastic disease (Antopol, 1933; Nadjem et al., 1988). Granulomatous lesions represent foreign body reactions to implanted material and, as such, are of limited relevance to occupational exposures to the powder. Lycopodium powder was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.24 Maleic Acid

Maleic acid is a colorless crystalline material with a faint acid odour and is used to make artificial resins and antihistamines, as well as to preserve fats and oils (NJHSFS, 1986a). No evidence of mutagenicity was found in bacterial assays, including Ames tests (BIBRA, 1990; CCRIS, 1989), however, a positive result was obtained in cultured human cells (CCOHS, 1997b). One poorly reported reference indicated that maleic acid was not carcinogenic in a feeding study in rats administered up to 750 mg/kg body weight/day for 2 years (IUCLID, 2000c). Based on the limited data available, the structural analysis of the compound, and the lack of structural alerts for genotoxicity or carcinogenicity, maleic acid is not expected to be carcinogenic.

3.3.25 Malic Acid

The general population is exposed to malic acid through consumption of food as it is present naturally in fruits. It is also used as a commercial food additive and flavouring agent (HSDB, 2003). Malic acid was negative in an Ames assay (CCRIS, 1991b) and no signs of genotoxic activity were reported for DL-malic acid and its sodium salt in a limited range of screening tests, including Ames bacterial tests (BIBRA, 1992). Based on these data and SAR analysis, malic acid is considered as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.26 Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)

Methyl ethyl ketone is a colourless liquid with a fragrant, mint-like odour, used as a solvent and in making plastics, textiles and paints (NJHSFS, 1996b). MEK was negative in bacterial (CCRIS, 2008d), as well as other in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity assays (WHO, 1993). Despite equivocal results based on cancer incidences in male factory workers (WHO, 1993), no conclusive evidence exists as to the carcinogenicity of MEK due to the limited number of workers examined and the concurrent exposure to other solvents and chemicals. MEK is not listed as a carcinogen by regulatory agencies and is not structurally related to known carcinogens and contains no structural alerts for genotoxicity. On the basis of the above, MEK was considered as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.27 Molybdenum Disulphide

Molybdenum disulphide is used as a lubricant in greases, oil dispersions, resin bonded films, and dry powders (HSDB, 1990). Molybdenum disulfide gave negative results in a short-term bacterial assay (CCOHS, 1989). Though soluble molybdenum compounds are classified as A3 (confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans) (ACGIH, 2009), molybdenum disulphide is an insoluble compound in water (CCOHS, 1989). As a result, this compound is not expected to be carcinogenic activity in humans.

3.3.28 α-Naphthoflavone

a-Naphthoflavone chemical was tested for its anti-mutagenicity of 3 known carcinogens in an micronucleus test and was observed to reduce the mutagenicity to just above the spontaneous frequency normally observed in the cell line test (Huberman and Sachs, 1974). No other information is available for this chemical. As no other data were available, and given that the chemical reportedly showed anti-mutagenic effects, it was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.29 Ninhydrin

Ninhydrin is used to monitor for the presence of ammonia and other primary and secondary amines. Very limited data were available on ninhydrin. Ninhydrin was reported to be negative in an Ames assay with and without metabolic activation (Zeiger et al., 1987), however, it was reported to act as a potent stage-I tumour promoter in a dermal carcinogenicity study in mice (Shukla et al., 1994). It did not however, produce tumours when applied as a stage-II or complete tumour promoter. The relevance of these types of tumour promotion and initiation assays to the assessment of human carcinogenic risk is questionable. A 2-year carcinogenicity study on phthalic anhydride, a chemical structurally related to ninhydrin, was performed by the NCI (1979; Kluwe et al. 1982). In each of F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice phthalic anhydride failed to induce tumours, even when administered at high doses in the diet. Given this and the lack of structural alerts, ninhydrin was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.30 Potassium Thiocyanate

No human studies were available for review. In one subcutaneous injection study in male rats, increased thyroid neoplasms were observed (Kanno et al., 1990), though this route of administration is not relevant to the occupational setting. No other information as to the mutagenicity/carcinogenicity were identified in the literature. Inorganic thiocyanates (i.e., potassium thiocyanate) do not contain any structural alerts. Based on the limited data available, there is no indication that potassium thiocyanate is carcinogenic risk.

3.3.31 Silver Nitrate

Silver Nitrate is a colorless, odourless, crystalline solid and is used in photography, silver plating, chemical reactions, mirror manufacturing, and as an antiseptic (NJHSFS, 2000). Silver nitrate was not considered to be mutagenic in 2 in vitro assays (Nishioka, 1975). Equivocal results have been reported in in vivo animal studies (U.S. EPA, 2003b); however, these studies used implantations or intravenous/intramuscular injections and are thus not deemed relevant to occupational exposure to silver nitrate. Silver nitrate contains no structural alerts for genotoxic or carcinogenic activity. Overall, silver nitrate is not expected to be carcinogenic.

3.3.32 Sodium Carbonate

The main uses of sodium carbonate are in the manufacture of glass and in the production of other sodium compounds, as well as in soaps, detergents, and strong cleaning agents. An in vitro mutagenicity test with bacteria was negative and based on the structure of sodium carbonate, no genotoxic effects are expected (OECD SIDS, 2002). Sodium carbonate was classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.33 Sodium Hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide is a white, odourless pellet or solid which is often used in aqueous solutions. It is employed in the manufacture of chemicals, and in petroleum refining, paper making, cleaning compounds, and has many other uses (NJHSFS, 1995e). A positive result obtained in cultured mammalian cells is believed to be caused by high pH. No evidence of mutagenic activity was reported in bacterial systems (CCOHS, 2008). Concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions, while high caustic, are not expected to have intrinsic carcinogenic potential.

3.3.34 Stearic Acid

Stearic acid is used as an ingredient in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics; in the production of lubricants, soaps, plastics and coatings; rubber softeners; dispersing agent; and stabilizers (CCOHS, 1995b). Stearic acid was not tumourigenic in 2 studies in which the chemical was administered intravenously to mice, while 2 other studies showed a decrease in chemically-induced tumours if stearic acid was injected or fed to animals (Opdyke, 1979). Stearic acid was negative in bacterial Ames and E. coli assays (CCRIS, 2008e). Stearic acid has no carcinogenic potential.

3.3.35 Zinc

Solid zinc is a soft white metal used as in coatings on iron and steel and in making brass metal alloys, while zinc powder is used in making paints and dyes (NJHSFS, 1989). No occupationally relevant or conclusive information exists that indicates that zinc is mutagenic or carcinogenic (CCOHS, 2006c). However, zinc sulfate has produced positive results in a well-conducted test using live animals (CCOHS, 2006c). Nonetheless, since elemental zinc is an essential nutrient, to which there is widespread humane exposure, it has been classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.36 Zinc Chloride

Zinc chloride is a white, crystalline solid or a colorless liquid when used in soldering, wood preservation, embalming fluids, smoke screens, and making other chemicals (NJHSFS, 1986b). In vitro evaluations have been equivocal as positive results (chromosome aberrations and DNA damage) have been obtained in tests with cultured human lymphocytes, while negative results (gene mutation, DNA repair) were obtained in tests with mammalian cells, with and without metabolic activation (CCOHS, 2005). Insufficient data exists pertaining to the in vivo carcinogenicity zinc. However, given profile for elemental zinc and the fact that chloride ion is known not to be carcinogenic, it is concluded that zinc chloride is most appropriately classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk".

3.3.37 Nonoxynol, Ferric Nitrate, Ferrous Ammonium Sulphate, (C12-18) Alkyl Alcohol Ethoxylate Propoxylate, 1,2-Indandione, Synperonic N, Sulphosalicylic Acid, Thenoyltrifluoroacetone, Fluorescein, Methyl Perfluoroisobutyl ether, Methyl Perfluorobutyl ether, 2,3 Dihydroperfluoropentane

The 12 chemicals listed below were classified as "Not reported to have carcinogenic potential and without theoretical risk" on the basis of SAR analysis and/or the lack of structural alerts for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (Ashby and Tennant, 1991; Benigni and Bossa, 2008).

  • Nonoxynol
  • Ferric nitrate
  • Ferrous ammonium sulphate
  • (C12-18) Alkyl alcohol ethoxylate propoxylate
  • 1,2-Indandione Synperonic N
  • Suphosalicylic acid
  • Thenoyltrifluoroacetone
  • Fluorescein
  • Methyl perfluoroisobutyl ether
  • Methyl perfluorobutyl ether
  • 2,3-Dihydroperfluoropentane