September 25, 1873 to October 17, 1873
Smith served as a British Army officer in the Crimean War before coming to Canada and joining the militia. He was appointed for a temporary period as the first Commissioner of the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) and swore in the first members at Lower Fort Garry, secured the supply of uniforms from militia stores, and commenced training.
October 18, 1873 to July 21, 1876
French established the Canadian Militia gunnery school in Kingston in 1871; he remained with the Royal Artillery until he was appointed the first permanent Commissioner of the NWMP. French built on his predecessor’s efforts, recruiting, training, and establishing high standards of discipline and morale, which imbued the Force with its military character. French also commanded the March West, effectively bringing law to the unmapped western territories.
July 22, 1876 to October 31, 1880
Macleod had a similar military lineage to his predecessors, and built upon their efforts when he was appointment Commissioner. He oversaw the moving of police headquarters to Fort Macleod, adopted a distinctive uniform and established a rank structure. He has also been credited more than any other individual with establishing the peaceful policies followed by the NWMP in their dealings with First Nations.
November 1, 1880 to March 31, 1886
Irvine was the first native-born Canadian to command the NWMP. After a career in the militia, he joined the NWMP and moved quickly from Superintendent to Assistant Commissioner before being appointed Commissioner. As Commissioner, Irvine increased the number of members from 300 to 1,000, raised the age of recruits, established a permanent headquarters at Regina, and created the training facility in Regina which remains active to this day.
April 1, 1886 to July 31, 1900
Herchmer was appointed Commissioner by Sir John A. Macdonald after a career that included British military training. Herchmer served throughout the expansion of the Force into the Yukon, and created a riding school in Regina, raised recruitment standards, and introduced a regular system of patrols with extensive reporting, in order to provide a comprehensive picture of all activities in areas under the jurisdiction of the NWMP. Herchmer also improved living conditions and benefits for the members by establishing a pension program, creating divisional canteens and recreation rooms and organizing sports during off-duty hours.
August 1, 1900 to March 31, 1923
As an Inspector in the NWMP, Perry led a contingent sent to Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee in England in 1897, the first occasion on which a detachment of the Mounted Police was sent overseas. As Commissioner, Perry organized a secret service for intelligence gathering, instituted annual training classes, increased pay rates, revised regulations related to marriage, formed two squadrons to fight in the First World War, and approved changes to the uniform, the adoption of the Stetson being one of the more notable aspects. Perry also helped to reorganize the Force after it absorbed the Dominion Police, extending police services throughout Canada.
April 1, 1923 to July 31, 1931
After a long and varied career, Starnes became the 7th Commissioner of the Force, the first of French Canadian ancestry. His period as head of the Force was one of expansion of duties, particularly with respect to enforcement of federal statutes, increased mechanization with radio, telephone and the motor car, as well as growing technical services in ballistics, forensic science, photography and fingerprinting.
August 1, 1931 to March 5, 1938
MacBrien served with the NWMP before joining the militia in order to participate in the South African and First World War. As Chief of General Staff of the Overseas Military Forces of Canada from 1919 to 1920, he was a key figure in the creation of the Department of National Defence and in 1923 he was appointed the first Chief of Defence Staff. During his term, MacBrien almost doubled the strength of the Force, established a Marine Division, an aviation section, a Police Service Dog Section, the first Crime Detection Laboratory, a museum in Regina for the RCMP, introduced the Long Service Medal, and created a Reserve Force of members to be trained and ready in the event of an emergency. MacBrien died while still in office, and was buried with full military honours.
March 6, 1938 to April 30, 1951
As Commissioner during the Second World War, Wood helped establish the First Provost Company for overseas service, and dealt with espionage cases. He also opened new detachments in the North, organized a permanent RCMP Band, established a horse breeding station at Fort Walsh, improved wireless communications and broadcasting, and instituted a preventive policing program directed towards youth.
May 1, 1951 to March 31, 1959
Nicholson was the first Maritime Commissioner of the RCMP. He joined the organization at the age of 19 and served in the New Brunswick and Nova Scotia Provincial Police before being appointed Commissioner. His principal accomplishment as Commissioner was an extensive building program aimed at providing proper accommodations for Force members and employees at all levels, from detachments to headquarters. He also reorganized the administration of the Force, increased manpower and upgraded transport and communications technology to increase efficiency.
April 1, 1959 to March 31, 1960
Rivett-Carnac had a long and varied career both inside and outside the RCMP. He lived in India, where he managed an elephant camp in the foothills of the Himalayas until joining the RCMP. During his service, he worked in the Arctic and the West, and was the Officer in Charge of the Special Branch in Ottawa during the Gouzenko case. He was also the editor of the RCMP’s Quarterly magazine before becoming Commissioner. He made revisions to both the RCMP Act and Superannuation Act, which provided for disability pensions for injuries sustained on duty. Just before leaving office, he was elected Vice President of Interpol.
April 1, 1960 to October 31, 1963
Harvison quickly rose through the ranks of the Force gaining much experience in criminal investigation. He studied law enforcement methods in Great Britain, the United States, Pakistan, India, Ghana, Liberia and most European countries, and was especially interested in intelligence gathering systems. Upon becoming Commissioner, Harvison recognized that Canada had become an increasingly attractive target for organized crime, and established National Crime Intelligence Units across Canada. He also understood the need for cooperation between police organizations on the international and national levels, and represented the RCMP at several associations, including Interpol and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.
November 1, 1963 to August 14, 1967
McClellan served as Commissioner during a difficult period, with the advent of the Centennial Year and Expo 67. To deal with growing organized crime, commercial fraud and use of illegal drugs, McClellan chaired two federal-provincial conferences that resulted in the expansion of National Police Services and the Canadian Police College. McClellan terminated equitation training for all recruits which eliminated the horse as an integral part of the Force’s establishment, but maintained it for the Musical Ride. Although controversial, this decision reinforced the Force’s tradition of adopting modern methods of policing.
August 15, 1967 to September 30, 1969
During his early career with the RCMP, Lindsay was one of the first groups of university students sponsored by the RCMP. As Commissioner, Lindsay advocated bilingualism in the Force, replaced sled dogs with snowmobiles thereby ending the dog patrol era, and instituted training courses for Aboriginals to perform police duties under RCMP supervision, allowing Native bands to share in the maintenance of law and order in their own communities.
October 1, 1969 to December 28, 1973
Higgitt joined the RCMP at the age of 20, and specialized in intelligence and security work. During his term in office, the Guidon was presented to the Force by Queen Elizabeth II, the first videofile system for storing and retrieving fingerprints was obtained, airport policing began, the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) with nationwide computer services was opened and the creation of the Canadian Bomb Data Centre was authorized. Higgitt directed operations during the FLQ Crisis in Quebec in 1970 and was responsible for organizing the many events connected with the RCMP Centennial Celebrations in 1973.
January 1, 1974 to August 31, 1977
(Acting Commissioner December 29, 1973 to December 31, 1973)
Nadon was appointed Commissioner of the RCMP on January 1, 1974. During his term, there was a great deal of media criticism for the Force’s alleged targeting of politicians and the over-application of the War Measures Act during the FLQ Crisis in Quebec. Nadon emphasized a war against organized crime, introduced female and married personnel into the ranks, led operations through the Montreal Olympics in 1976, and introduced a preventive-oriented concept of policing.
September 1, 1977 to August 31, 1987
During Commissioner Simmonds’s term in office, the McDonald Commission published its report with the recommendation that a civilian security intelligence agency be established separate from the RCMP. In 1984 the civilian Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) was established and the RCMP Security Service was formally disbanded. After retiring from the RCMP in 1987, Simmonds was involved with peace negotiations between warring tribes in South Africa and became the senior law enforcement officer of the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAC) in Vienna.
September 1, 1987 to June 24, 1994
Commissioner Inkster joined the RCMP in 1957, beginning his career in Regina, but later moving throughout Canada. Inkster faced the unionization debate, established an external review committee to address public complaints, expanded international police duties with peacekeeping and adopted community policing as a service delivery model. He is perhaps best known for wanting to “change the face” of the Force by campaigning to make the RCMP a career option for all Canadians no matter their race, gender or ethnic background, helping to establish advisory committees for local communities, and allowing members of the Force to be exempted from wearing any item of the uniform on the basis of their religious beliefs. On June 2, 1991 Inkster was presented with a Corps Ensign by the Governor General. This was the first ensign granted to the Force.
June 25, 1994 to August 31, 2000
After recruit training, Murray remained in Saskatchewan, attended the University of Regina where he was awarded the General Proficiency Scholarship in both 1975 and 1976 and completed a Bachelor of Administration degree in 1977. During his service as Commissioner, Murray established town hall meetings to improve communication within the Force and initiated corporate sponsorship. In 1997 he ended the RCMP’s responsibility for airport security, leaving it to local police establishments and private security agencies. He adopted Alternative Dispute Resolution and developed the Mission, Vision, and Values/Shared Leadership Statement which guides the force today.
September 1, 2000 to December 15, 2006
Born in Prezzo, Italy, Zaccardelli migrated to Canada with his family at the age of 7 and lived in Montreal until he joined the RCMP in 1970. In the aftermath of the tragic events of September 11, 2001, Commissioner Zaccardelli was faced with the challenge of securing Canada from unprecedented threats and promoting truer understanding among Canadians of all backgrounds. He was a strong and active communicator, and an authority and speaker on integrated policing, organized crime, globalization, and related issues.
December 16, 2006 to July 16, 2007
Commissioner Busson joined the RCMP in 1974, as part of the female troop. She served in a variety of front-line operational positions that included general duty, fraud investigation, drug enforcement and serious crimes investigations. In 1999, Commissioner Busson left the RCMP to head the Organized Crime Agency of British Columbia, and returned in 2000 as the Commanding Officer of British Columbia. She was promoted to Deputy Commissioner for the Pacific Region in 2001, while retaining her role as the Commanding Officer. Commissioner Busson is the first woman to head the RCMP, and has received many honours for her service with the RCMP.
July 16, 2007 - November 20, 2011
In July, 2007, William Elliott, an experienced lawyer and executive who had held progressively senior positions within the Public Service of Canada, became the first civilian to be appointed Commissioner of the RCMP. Commissioner Elliott had previously served as National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister, Associate Deputy Minister of Public Safety and Deputy Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard. Commissioner Elliott lead a comprehensive effort to realize the Vision for Change for the RCMP to be an adaptive, accountable, trusted organization of fully engaged employees demonstrating outstanding leadership and providing world-class police services.