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Gender-Based Assessment

November 9, 2012

Gender-Based Assessment

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Table of Contents

1.0 Executive Summary

The RCMP strives to build a strong, modern police force that is responsive to the needs of the Canadian public. To do so, the RCMP must have a balanced workforce that is representative of the communities it serves and that capitalizes on the strengths of all employees at all ranks. Having increased female representation throughout the Force can broaden perspectives, approaches and decision making to enhance the delivery of policing services to the Canadian public.

In late January 2012, the RCMP Commissioner appeared before the Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security and committed to conducting a gender-based assessment to determine why there was not more female representation, of the Regular Member category of employee, in the Force's senior management and executive cadre.

The objective of the Gender-Based Assessment was to validate whether recruitment and promotion policies are gender neutral and if their applications provide equal opportunity for female Regular Members. More specifically, the assessment intended to identify whether any gender inconsistencies and/or gaps existed in the recruiting and promotional processes. The assessment focused on the following three key areas: recruitment, the non-commissioned officer promotional process and the executive/officer development and resourcing promotional process.

Out of the 19,258 Regular Members that the RCMP employs, women represent 20%.

When examining the RCMP's current recruitment and promotional environment, external factors were identified that have an impact on both female and male Regular Members' decision making with respect to promotions. The most significant factors are family, mobility and work-life balance. Evidence indicated that these factors impact both genders, but have a more pronounced effect on females. Additionally, it was found that after 20 years of service, females are more likely to leave the organization than males.

The two primary concerns that were raised by members as having the most profound impact on their decision not to seek a promotion are:

  • The lack of fairness and transparency in the promotional processes
  • The desire to be promoted based on merit

The organization has aimed to increase female representation without compromising its merit principle. The assessment did find that there was a gender gap within recruitment, specifically at the physical abilities test, where there is a 14% difference in the success rate. Successful recruitment efforts contributed to the increased proportion of females enrolled and graduation from Depot. The proportion of female enrollment over the last five years at Depot has increased by 8% while graduation has increased by 4%.

When examining the promotional process for the non-commissioned officer ranks, it was found that there are similar proportions of male and female members actively seeking a promotion. However, promotional behaviors at these ranks differ by gender and females were found to be more selective when applying for a promotion. For example, 51% of male non-commissioned officers applied to two or more positions compared to 38% of females.

When assessing the Officer Candidate Development Program, although females were less likely to be supported to enter the Program, the proportion of female applicants has increased by 4% over the last five years. This increase may be attributed to the number of females who are eligible to apply to the Program, which has nearly doubled over the same time period.

At the commissioned officer ranks (Inspector and above) there was also an increase in female representation. It was found that a larger proportion of females compared to males received non-advertised appointments. For the positions that were advertised, proportionally, 15% of females were successful compared to 10% of their male counterparts.

The assessment validated that the RCMP's policies on recruitment, the non-commissioned officer's promotional process and the Officer Candidate Development Program are predominately gender neutral.

The challenges identified in this assessment are not exclusive to the RCMP and are issues faced by other police forces in Canada. To meet the benchmark established by the Commissioner of 35% female representation and ensure fair opportunities within the organization, the RCMP should identify, gather, track and monitor information related to gender. This will allow the organization to maintain momentum towards achieving more balanced representation.

2.0 Acronyms

Acronym Full Title / Term
APS Applied Police Sciences
CTPCadet Training Program
EEEmployment Equity
EEAEmployment Equity Act
E/ODRExecutive/Officer Development and Resourcing
FYFiscal Year
GBAGender-Based Assessment
HRMISHuman Resources Management Information System
IRLInitial Rank List
JSEJob Simulation Exercise
LMALabour Market Availability
NCONon-Commissioned Officer
NPESNational Program Evaluation Services
OCDPOfficer Candidate Development Program
OPPOntario Provincial Police
PAREPhysical Abilities Requirement Evaluation
RCMPRoyal Canadian Mounted Police
RMRegular Member
RPABRCMP Police Aptitude Battery
RPATRCMP Police Aptitude Test
SFPQSix-Factor Personality Questionnaire
S&PStaffing and Personnel

2.1 Regular Member Ranks

RANKACRONYMCLASSIFICATION
ConstableCst. Regular Member
CorporalCpl.Regular Member - Non-Commissioned Officer
SergeantSgt.Regular Member - Non-Commissioned Officer
Staff SergeantS/Sgt.Regular Member - Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
Sergeant MajorS/MRegular Member - Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
Staff Sergeant MajorS/S/MRegular Member - Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
Corps Sergeant MajorCSMRegular Member - Senior Non-Commissioned Officer
InspectorInsp.Regular Member - Commissioned Officer
SuperintendentSupt.Regular Member - Commissioned Officer
Chief SuperintendentC/Supt.Regular Member - Commissioned Officer
Assistant CommissionerA/Commr.Regular Member - Commissioned Officer
Deputy CommissionerD/Commr.Regular Member - Commissioned Officer

2.2 Definitions

For the purpose of this report, the following definitions will be used:

Benchmark:
a criterion by which to measure something; standard; reference point.
Club:
a privileged group of individuals who receive benefits and opportunities which are not available to others.
Diversity:
refers to ethnicity or specialization.
Division:
The Force is divided into 15 Divisions, plus Headquarters in Ottawa. Each division is managed by a Commanding Officer and is alphabetically designated. Divisions are located approximately at provincial boundaries with their headquarters located in respective provincial or territorial capitals (except "A", Ottawa; "C", Montreal; and "E", Vancouver).
Equal opportunity:
a provision that all people have the same access to resources, opportunities, and processes and be treated fairly, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified.
Feeder pool:
refers to a qualified group of candidates for promotion.
Gender neutrality:
describes the idea that language and other social institutions should avoid distinguishing people by their gender, in order to avoid discrimination arising from the impression that there are social roles for which one gender is more suited than the other.
Limited duration posting:
a geographic location within Canada that is in isolation from traditional city amenities. This term is also referred to as an 'isolated posting'.
Member(s):
refers to a RCMP Regular Member.
Regular Member:
a sworn member of the RCMP who performs Peace Officer duties as described in sec. 18 of the RCMP Act.

3.0 Introduction

First and foremost the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) is a police organization. To fulfill its primary goal, the RCMP must strive to be a modern organization that is strong, responsive and balanced.

In late January 2012, the Commissioner appeared before the Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security and committed to conducting a gender-based assessment. In an effort to assess equal opportunity and address the concerns of Regular Members (RMs) and the public regarding the lack of gender diversity within the senior ranks,Footnote 1 the Commissioner tasked the Chief Audit Executive of the RCMP with completing this assessment.

3.1 Objective and Scope

The objective of the assessment was to validate whether recruitment and promotion policies are gender neutral and if their applications provide equal opportunity for female RMs. More specifically, the assessment aimed to identify whether any gender inconsistencies and/or gaps exist in the recruitment and promotional processes at both the non-commissioned officer (NCO) and commissioned officer ranks.

The information contained within this report is a snapshot of the organization at a certain point in time. It provides insight into the RCMP's entry and advancement processes and highlights the areas where gender discrepancies exist. Further research and analysis may be needed to explore the cause and impact in each of these areas.

The assessment is national in scope and focused only on the RM category of employee. While RMs represent the largest category of employee within the RCMP (19,258 RMs), their category has the lowest female representation (20%).

Retention was initially one of the key elements that the assessment was going to examine. However, preliminary research suggested that beyond the first few years of service, the annual retention rate of RMs generally exceeded 99%.Footnote 2 This research indicated that this was the case until members reached the point in service where they could claim a percentage of their pension (typically at 20 years of service). In addition, there was virtually no difference between female and male attrition rates below 20 years of service.Footnote 3 As a result, retention was not included in the scope of the assessment.

3.2 Methodology

Multiple lines of evidence including both qualitative and quantitative data were used to develop and support findings including:

Document Review

Relevant internal and external documentation produced between 1998 to the present date was examined. Document review included, but was not limited to, literature reviews, research papers, media reports, academic papers, gender audits and evaluations, policies and other applicable information.

Interviews

Throughout May and June 2012, interviews with RMs and key stakeholders were conducted across the country. Some interviewees were targeted and others, specifically those at the NCO level, were randomly selected.

In total, 178 interviews were conducted.

Table 1 - Number and type of interviews conducted by gender

Type of interviewMaleFemaleTotal
Targeted Interviews 444993
Random NCO Interviews335285
Total77101178

Interviews were conducted in accordance with the requirements and objectives of qualitative research methodology that is exploratory and open-ended in nature. They intended to characterize RMs' experiences and opinions about promotional processes to assist in identifying inconsistencies and/or gaps that influence RMs' promotional choices and decisions.

To make sound conclusions, it was essential that interview findings be supported by multiple lines of evidence.

Interview Guides

Standardized interview guides were administered by National Program Evaluation Services' (NPES) evaluators. Six guides were developed and utilized to capture the views and behaviours of RMs as well as those individuals who are responsible for applying policies force-wide. Guides included those intended for:

  • Recruiting Personnel
  • Staffing and Personnel (S&P)
  • Commissioned Officers and unsuccessful female NCOs who have participated in the Officer Candidate Development Program (OCDP)
  • Line Officers/Supervisors
  • Commanding Officers
  • NCO Regular Members (random selection)

Table 2 – Number and type of interview guides administered by genderFootnote 4

Interview Guide TypeAdministered to a MaleAdministered to a FemaleTotal Administered
Recruiting Personnel437
Staffing and Personnel14418
Commissioned Female Officers and unsuccessful female NCOs33942
Line Officers/Supervisors19019
Commanding Officers437
Total Targeted Interviews444993
Random NCO Interviews335285
Total77101178

Administrative Data Review

Information was gathered from the RCMP's Human Resource Management Information System (HRMIS) database. In addition, data was obtained in consultation with HR Assessment and Research and the respective program areas: National Recruitment, National Staffing and Executive/Officer Development and Resourcing (E/ODR).

It is important to note that NPES did not have the opportunity to confirm the accuracy and validity of all data obtained from the RCMP program areas.

Survey Review

Accessible survey data conducted both internally and externally was analyzed to explore gender differences. Surveys included the following:

  • 2012 Companion Survey to the Myers Briggs Assessment - captured RMs' interest in promotional opportunities and perceptions on barriers or challenges that prevent them from promoting.
  • 2011 Public Service Employee Survey - collected RMs' opinions on employee engagement, workplace, work-life balance, and leadership.
  • 2008 NCO Survey - explored reasons for not applying for promotions, trends in applying for promotional opportunities, and captured NCOs' opinions towards the NCO promotional process.

Questionnaire

NPES conducted the 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire, commonly referred to as "the questionnaire" in this report, which was designed to gather and supplement unavailable data. The questionnaire focused on promotional behaviors of RMs and gathered information on various steps of the promotional processes. This included gathering information on the number of RMs writing the Job Simulation Exercise (JSE) exam, those actively seeking a promotion, the number of promotions applied for, years taken to get promoted to the recent rank, etc.

The questionnaire was sent to all members from the rank of Corporal (with one year at rank) and above. As a result, the questionnaire was sent to 7238 RMs, including 1288 females (18%) and 5950 males (82%). The rationale to send the questionnaire to the rank of Corporal and above was to assess promotional behaviours and processes at the NCO and commissioned officer ranks. Constables were not included in this selection as they are not considered NCOs. The questionnaire intended to target those members who had successfully completed one promotional process.

The questionnaire was distributed by email and information was gathered and administered by the RCMP Survey Centre. The questionnaire was launched on June 20 and closed on June 29, 2012. Approximately 4050 RMs responded which resulted in an overall response rate of 56%. The response rate of female members was 68% compared to 53% of male members.Footnote 5

Audit

RCMP Internal Audit examined English and French internal policies regarding recruiting, NCO promotions, and the OCDP to establish whether these policies were gender neutral with regards to language and content.

3.3 Limitations

Lack of Available Administrative Data

Data requests were sent to applicable program areas in order to obtain information relevant to this assessment. Shortly thereafter, it was discovered that large quantities of anticipated data relating to promotional processes was not available since the information was not captured, tracked and/or stored electronically. Findings were developed in conjunction with other methodologies and complemented by the development and response to the questionnaire.

Public Opinion Research

Given the short timeline and policy governing opinion research it was not possible to collect the opinions of all RMs via the questionnaire. In an effort to compensate, interviews with a random sample of male and female RMs at the NCO ranks were conducted force-wide.

Organizational Changes

There are currently organizational changes underway including: Federal Policing Re-engineering, civilianization of RM positions and consolidation and centralization of administrative services. A large majority of interviewees indicated that their views and behaviours towards the promotional process may be influenced by changes to the RCMP's organizational structure.

4.0 Policing in Canada

To understand the context in which the RCMP operates, it is important to have a general understanding of policing in Canada and the current representation of female police officers.

While policing has traditionally been a male-dominated profession, the RCMP has remained competitive with other police forces with respect to its overall representation of female police officers. According to Statistics Canada,Footnote 6 the representation of females within police services across Canada has increased from 17.3% in 2005 to 19.6% in 2011. There was no significant difference of female representation in the RCMP, which also increased during the same years, as illustrated in the table below.

Table 3 - Representation of female police officers at all ranks by year

Year% of total female representation within Police Services in CanadaFootnote 7 (this includes the RCMP)% of total female members within RCMPFootnote 8
200517.3%18.1%
200617.9%18.7%
200718.5%19.4%
200818.7%19.7%
200919.1%19.9%
201019.2%19.9%
201119.6%20.1%

Differences were noted at the NCO ranks where the RCMP has consistently exceeded female representation compared to other police forces across Canada. For instance, in 2011, Statistics Canada reported that 15.8%Footnote 9 of police officers at the NCO rank were female while RCMP data indicates that female representation accounted for 17.8%.Footnote 10

At the commissioned officer ranks, there were no significant differences between the RCMP and other police forces across Canada. Interestingly, among eight police services reviewed, only two (Edmonton Police Services, Toronto Police Services) had a female police officer as part of its senior executive.Footnote 11 The RCMP along with two other police services did however have civilian female representation as part of their senior executive while the remaining three police services had no female representation.

Although the RCMP is similar to other police forces with respect to female representation at the senior executive level, it falls below the overall Canadian percentage of females holding senior management occupationsFootnote 12 which was 22.9% in 2011.Footnote 13

In early 2012, the Commissioner publicly announced that in an effort to increase female representation within the RCMP, the recruiting benchmark for females would be increased from 30% to 35%. This target is ambitious given that the 2006 Census indicated that the Labour Market Availability (LMA) for females who are interested in a career in policing is 27%.Footnote 14 According to LMA rates,Footnote 15 females interested in policing as a career choice has increased from 17% in 2001 to 27% nationally.Footnote 16 While there has been a 10% increase, the RCMP is competing with other Canadian police forces who select their candidates from the same pool of interested and qualified individuals.

Much like the RCMP, other police services recognize the need to increase and retain female representation and many have put in place proactive strategies to meet their respective targets. For instance, in 2002, the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) introduced a recruiting initiative targeting females called "OPP Bound" which provided females considering policing as a career an experiential opportunity to work alongside a police officer.Footnote 17

The RCMP has also introduced targeted recruiting initiatives within its divisions with a goal of increasing its female representation. For example, "D" Division (Winnipeg, Manitoba) organizes and hosts in partnership with other organizationsFootnote 18 the annual "Manitoba Women's Career Day" which attracts between 200 and 500 potential female candidates.Footnote 19

Proactive efforts to attract female recruits are important to compete with other police services for the percentage of females who are interested in policing as a career.

5.0 The RCMP: A Unique Police Force

As Canada's national police force, the RCMP attracts women and men from all provinces and territories across Canada. It is a unique police force that has operations and partnerships at the international, national, provincial, municipal levels and aboriginal communities.

As a result of its broad mandate, career opportunities within the RCMP are numerous and diverse. While there are job similarities to other police forces across Canada in municipal and provincial policing aspects, there are more than 150 career specializations that contribute to the RCMP's uniqueness.

It is important to employ a diverse workforce that is reflective of the communities it serves. This is central to achieving the RCMP's departmental mandate and supporting its delivery of service to the public. As a result, in November 2002, the RCMP adopted the terms of the Employment Equity Act (EEA), which are designed to ensure equal opportunity and open competition for employment and advancement opportunities to those who might otherwise be excluded.Footnote 20 Women are identified as a designated group under the EEA.

The RCMP began hiring women as RMs in 1974. The following graph demonstrates how the representation of women has grown steadily from 8% in 1990 to 20% in 2012.

Figure 1 – Historical RM representation by gender Footnote 21 Graphic showing the Historical RM Representation by Gender.  See Long Description

Long Description

Within the structure of the RCMP there are different levels of rank, including Constables, non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers. When cadets graduate from Depot they are sworn in as RMs at the rank of Constable. Between five to seven years of service, a Constable is eligible to apply and compete for a promotion at the non-commissioned officer ranks.Footnote 22

Within the NCO ranks, Corporal, Sergeant and Staff Sergeant are attained through the NCO promotional process. The ranks of Sergeant Major, Staff Sergeant Major and Corps Sergeant Major, are appointments and do not follow the NCO promotional process.

In order to advance into the commissioned officer cadre, a candidate must be successful in the OCDP. The first rank within the officer cadre is Inspector followed by Superintendent. The senior executive ranks within the RCMP include Chief Superintendent, Assistant Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner and the Commissioner. The following table provides information with respect to female representation at all levels of rank.

Table 4 – Female representation in the RCMP by rank as of April 1, 2012Footnote 23

RCMP RankTotal No. of PositionsNo. of Females% of Females
Constable (Cst.)11,637259022%
Corporal (Cpl.)365182923%
Sergeant (Sgt.)213732915%
Staff Sergeant (S/Sgt.)945768%
Inspector (Insp.)4275212%
Superintendent (Supt.)1912111%
Chief Superintendent (C/Supt.)52612%
Assistant Commissioner (A/Commr.)2329%
Deputy Commissioner (D/Commr.)61*17%
Commissioner100%
* Since April 1, 2012, there is no longer female representation at the Deputy Commissioner rank. As of September 2012, there are seven male Deputy Commissioners.

Overall, females currently represent 20% of the total RM population. Among the senior NCO and commissioned officer ranks, representation of females decreases and is more apparent at the senior executive ranks. For instance, there is currently no female representation at the Deputy Commissioner rank.

6.0 Factors Impacting Regular Members Careers

This section explains the external factors impacting both genders' decisions regarding promotions. These factors also have the potential to impact the feeder pools as they can decrease the number of members interested and qualified to apply to promotions at the various ranks.

Mobility, family and work-life balance have been identified at all ranks by both genders as reasons why RMs may choose not to seek a promotion. For instance, the graph below illustrates the most frequently identified reasons why members at the NCO ranks do not apply for promotions:Footnote 24

Figure 2 – Reasons cited by NCOs, female and male, for not being interested in applying for promotionsFootnote 25

Graphic showing Reasons cited by NCOs, female and male, for not being interested in applying for promotions

  • A Promotional opportunities outside the current geographical posting (34%)
  • B Already in the preferred geographical posting (60%)
  • C Family connections and/or responsibilities in the current geographical posting (38%)
  • D Have children in the school who do not want to move (35%)
  • E Prefer to wait for a promotional opportunity in the current geographical posting (47%)
  • F More reasonable cost of living in the current geographical posting (38%)
  • G Community involvement (31%)
  • H Dislike the upheaval of moving and re-establishing in a new environment (39%)
  • I Risk damaging spouse/partner's career (40%)

As the graph reveals, geographic location and mobility are the most cited reasons why NCOs choose not to apply for a promotion.

Mobility

Being mobile throughout one's career is a requirement agreed upon by all RMs when entering the RCMP. As well, being mobile may contribute to gaining diverse work experience, which typically supports advancing a member's career. However, as one's career progresses and personal life decisions are made, the ability and willingness of members to re-locate fluctuates over time.

Mobility is not exclusively a gender issue however it can be a factor that is amplified for women with dependents. For instance, the 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire shows that female NCOs with dependents are less likely to apply for promotions outside their divisionFootnote 26 and regionFootnote 27 compared to both female NCOs without dependents and male NCOs overall.

Concerns around mobility were also raised during interviews with members and are consistent with the results of literature specific to the RCMP that indicate that mobility is a key factor when considering promotions.Footnote 28 Decisions to re-locate in order to gain diverse work experiences and promotions take into account dependants and family responsibilities. For example, females are less likely than males to apply to limited duration posts throughout their career. This is particularly noticeable at the Sergeant rank where only 3%Footnote 29 of females compared to 20%Footnote 30 of males had applied to a limited duration posting.

Family

For the purpose of this assessment, the term "family" reflects the diversity and reality of contemporary families.

Literature review speaks at large about the impacts on police officers who are the primary caregiver for a family member(s) or other dependant(s). In a study examining Canadian Police Departments it was found that, "Only 1% of the women in the sample are in "Mr. Mom" families (husband at home full-time with the children). This puts them at a disadvantage [compared] to the 12% of their male colleagues in traditional families where the wife stays home full time."Footnote 31

The same report goes on to explain that, "The fact that these individuals have higher demands at home combined with a workplace culture that values putting work first and a job that gives them little control over their job or their hours of work means that officers in this group (many of whom are female officers) have to put family first and career second."Footnote 32 Within the RCMP, it is observed that as members move up the ranks, discrepancies in males versus females' representation begin to widen.

Supplementary literature elaborates on this point and states that family responsibilities impact an individual's ability to work overtime. As a member moves up the ranks, responsibilities are typically increased which may result in the requirement for additional hours to be worked. This is supported by Linda Duxbury who indicates that the, "higher the rank the fewer hours per week the respondent spends in dependent care overall."Footnote 33

To assist with conflicting responsibilities, the 2006 Employment Equity Systems Review Report, recommended that the RCMP review the issue of resources and all available temporary replacement options to ensure that females and others who need maternity/parental leave or other work options such as job sharing to balance family and work are accommodated in a sensitive manner.Footnote 34

This Report further explained this matter by stating:Footnote 35

...policies exist, however the review found that in practice the use of these options is not widely encouraged and support varies across the country. We recommend stronger support for these work options since balancing family/work is an important issue for women (and others), at certain periods in their careers.

While this particular report did not contain a Management Response and Action Plan, the RCMP's draft Employment Equity Action Plan for April 2012-March 2017 stated that, "The RCMP will promote the use of options such as part-time employment to the extent (where) operationally feasible, to support women and others to achieve a better balance in coping with work and family responsibilities."Footnote 36 No further evidence could be acquired to determine the outcome or status of this initiative.

Work-Life Balance

Work-life balance is a state of well-being that a person can reach or can set as a goal in order to allow them to manage effectively multiple responsibilities at work, at home and in their community. Work-life balance is different for everyone and it supports physical, emotional, family and community health and does so without grief, stress or negative impact.Footnote 37

Although historically the struggle between balancing one's personal life and career aspirations has predominantly been an issue faced by females, it appears that this has evolved into more of generational issue as opposed to a gender issue.

This shift is highlighted in research which explains that both time and flexibility are important considerations for the younger generations.Footnote 38 In this context, time refers to the desire of the younger generation to have access to sufficient vacation time as well as the ability to earn additional time off (time lieu). Flexibility relates to work hours and scheduling and highlights the younger generations need to maintain the balance between their personal life and work commitments.

The RCMP can anticipate that the issues cited above, which have historically affected females, will more commonly be shared by both genders in the future. "Organizations must contend with differences between generations, such as in core attitudes toward work."Footnote 39 Healthy work-life balance options for all membership should be further encouraged and supported by the RCMP.

Attrition Rates

Although the retention rate of members up to the first 20 years of service generally exceeds 99% with no gender discrepancies, it was revealed that beyond 20 years of service, gender differences began to emerge. Footnote 40

For instance, at 20-24 years of service attrition rate of females is 6.7% in 2010 compared to 3.9% for males. However, at 25-29 years of service, attrition rate of females is 14.8% compared to 9.4% for males. Footnote 41

Literature on officer motivation and succession planning in the RCMP reveals that over 17% of females report expecting to have between 21 and 25 years of service at retirement compared to only 8% of males. It appears that many females are making a choice to shorten their career within the RCMP. Footnote 42

As a result, females are planning far shorter careers in comparison to their male counterparts. While 57.4% of males are expected to have 31 or more years of service upon retirement, only 22.8% of females responded accordingly.Footnote 43 The average years of service of female retirement is 25.3 compared to 32.9 for males. Footnote 44

This issue is somewhat comparable to challenges other police forces are faced with. The International Association of Chiefs of Police published information which stated,

28% of agencies reported that it is somewhat difficult to retain women officers. It is important Footnote 45 to note that 24% said the same thing about men. […] Departments have somewhat more trouble retaining women, but face retention issues with both genders.

In the RCMP, the average years of retirement by gender has an impact on the number of eligible female RMs interested in applying to the senior ranks of the organization. The organization may want to further explore issues surrounding attrition to determine the exact reasons for why females are retiring earlier than their male counterparts.

7.0 Findings

7.1 Recruitment

Recruitment is a critical activity for the organization to build capacity, contribute to succession planning and attract a diverse workforce. This activity in the RCMP is a complex function that requires the consideration of many factors in order to successfully meet national recruiting benchmarks. A couple factors which may constrain the number and/or type of recruits are:

  • The requirement to satisfy provincial policing contracts.
  • RCMP recruiting benchmarks are established on a national basis. Each area is expected to attain proposed divisional benchmarks.

These constraints impact the number of candidates selected from each division regardless of the number of interested and qualified applicants.



Finding 1. Female applicants with lower RCMP Police Aptitude Battery scores can be selected over non-designated males in the recruitment process. This selection is aligned with the Employment Equity Act.

 


The RCMP Police Aptitude Test (RPAT) pass mark is 3.2 regardless of gender. All applicants who pass the test and have a valid Six-Factor Personality Questionnaire (SFPQ) completed are assigned a RCMP Police Aptitude Battery (RPAB) aggregate score. Based on the aggregated score, applicants are placed on divisional Initial Rank Lists (IRL)Footnote 46 . The IRL is separated into 'designated groups'Footnote 47 based on the EEA and include women, visible minorities, aboriginals and non-designated males (white males). Applicants self-identify which group they may belong to. Based on RCMP benchmarks, applicants are then selected from the different divisional IRL based on various criteria (i.e. allotments, attrition) that are specific to that division.

From FY 2007-08 to 2011-12, the percentage of females being selected from the IRL has significantly increased as follows:

Table 5 - Percentage of females selected from the IRL during the recruitment process by fiscal yearFootnote 48

Fiscal Year 2007-082008-092009-102010-112011-12
Percentage of females selected from the IRL 19% 20% 21% 32% 29%

Based on national recruiting targets, the RCMP selects the required number of applicants from each group in a 'top down' fashion. This method of selection has the potential for the Force to choose females with lower RPAB scores over non-designated males. However, the RCMP aims to ensure that all applicants, regardless of their designated group, meet the minimum criteria in all phases of the recruitment process.

This method of selection is also consistent with the requirements of the EEA. The RCMP's Employment Equity Report 2010/11:Footnote 49

Great efforts are being made to recruit from the pool of employment equity designated groups, to which the merit principle in the recruitng process remains the same. The recruiting standards have not been compromised and every individual who applies must successfully pass each step of the process.



Finding 2. The success rate of the physical abilities test in the recruitment process differs by gender.

 


The next step in the recruitment process where gender differences are noted is in the Physical Abilities Requirement Evaluation (PARE). The PARE is an occupational test used to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of police work. It is primarily used in the selection process of RCMP applicants and as part of graduating criteria for cadets at Depot.

The average pass rate of the PARE over the last five years is 96%. There is a difference in success rates by gender, with 84% of females passing the PARE compared to 98% of men.Footnote 50 "O" Division has implemented female only PARE training sessions to assist those who initially fail.

Recruitment is the primary contributor to building gender diversity within the Force. It is essential to ensure employment equity initiatives, as part of the recruitment process, provide equal opportunities while at the same time do not impact the merit principle of ensuring the right person for the job is hired.

Given the identified gap at the recruitment stage, the RCMP may benefit by further exploring the difference in success rates by gender for the PARE.

7.2 Depot

Once an applicant successfully completes the Cadet Selection Process, they are enrolled into a troopFootnote 51 and depart for the Cadet Training Program (CTP). This training takes place at the RCMP's Depot Training Academy located in Regina, Saskatchewan.

Cadets attend Depot and are exposed to an extensive 24 week basic training course. The training is knowledge and skills-based and includes courses such as, Firearms Training, Police Defensive Tactics, Applied Police Sciences (APS), Drill, etc. Once the CTP is successfully completed, a cadet is engaged upon graduation as a Regular Member of the RCMP at the rank of Constable.


Finding 3. The proportion of females enrolled and graduating from Depot has increased.

 


Enrollment

The number of cadets enrolled for basic training fluctuates depending on organizational requirements and budgets.Footnote 52 For the period of fiscal year (FY) 2007-08 to 2011-12 the proportion of female cadets enrolled in Depot has increased from 19% to 27%. This increase is illustrated in the table below.

Table 6 - Depot enrollment by fiscal year by gender

Fiscal YearTotal No. of TroopsFootnote 53FemaleMaleTotal No. of CadetsProportion of FemaleProportion of Male
2007-2008 45 275 1142 1417 19% 81%
2008-2009 56 325 1458 1783 18% 82%
2009-2010 32 186 835 1021 18% 82%
2010-2011 18 127 454 581 22% 78%
2011-2012 18 156 419 575 27% 73%

The number of cadets graduating is influenced by the number of cadets who either resign or are terminated from Depot. During training, cadets have specific milestones they are required to meet. If a cadet fails to meet these milestones, he/she may be terminatedFootnote 54 and subsequently released from Depot.

Termination

While reasons cited for termination are similar for both genders, female cadets are more likely to be discharged than male cadets. Termination rates vary between 3% and 10% for females compared to 2% and 6% for males.Footnote 55

From 2007/08 to 2011/12 cadets were most frequently released from training for the following three reasons:

Table 7 – Most frequently cited reasons for termination by genderFootnote 56

Male CadetsFemale Cadets
1) Core Values1) Core Values
2) Applied Police Science2) Applied Police Science
3) Fitness/PARE, Police Defensive Tactics, Firearms, Driving, Medical Other3) Fitness/PARE, Firearms, Driving, Medical, Final Detachment

Resignation

While resignation rates for both genders are consistent, varying between 8% and 11% from 2007/08 to 2011/12Footnte57, cadets most frequently cited the following top five reasons for resignation listed in order by gender:

Table 8 – Most frequently cited reasons for resignation by genderFootnote 58

Male CadetsFemale Cadets
1) Not ready to be a police officer1) Not ready to be a police officer
2) Medical2) Medical
3) Family Reasons3) Not ready for training
4) Not mobile4) Performance
5) Not ready for training5) Not Mobile

Graduation

The table below presents the number and proportion of graduating cadets. Even though the total number of cadets graduating has significantly decreased and the proportion of female graduates has fluctuated over the last five years, there has been a 5% increase since fiscal year 2008-09. Based on 2011-12 data, females graduating from Depot represented 22% of the total graduates.

Table 9 - Depot graduations by fiscal year by genderFootnote 59

Depot Graduation
Fiscal YearFemaleMaleTotal No. of CadetsProportion of Female GraduatesProportion of Male Graduates
2007-20082271031125818%82%
2008-20092361113134917%83%
2009-20102261066129217%83%
2010-201110642453020%80%
2011-201211140351422%78%
* The discrepancy in the numbers of cadets enrolled (Table 6) and the cadets graduating (Table 9) is attributed to the fact that some cadets are enrolled towards the end of the fiscal year therefore would only be captured as having graduated in the following fiscal year.

This demonstrates that the proportion of females applying and graduating has increased over the past few years despite the overall decrease in the number of cadets.

7.3 Non-Commissioned Officer Promotional Process

Upon graduating from basic training, RMs are engaged at the rank of Constable (Cst.). After the completion of five to seven years of service, a Cst. is eligible to enter the NCO promotional process to become a Corporal (Cpl.). The promotional process for Sergeant (Sgt.) and Staff Sergeant (S/Sgt.) is similar, however members are eligible to enter the promotional process after completing two years of service at rank.

This process has evolved over the years and currently the NCO promotional process is as follows :Footnote 60

Graphic showing the steps involved in the Non-Commissioned Officer Promotional Process.

The Non-Commissioned Officer Promotional Process involves the following steps:

  1. Job Simulation Exercise
  2. Completion of Application documentation
  3. Supervisor/ Line Officer Support
  4. Competency Validation
  5. Selection of Line Officer (optional use of selection tools)


Finding 4. Promotional behaviours at the non-commissioned officer rank are different by gender.

 


The questionnaire revealed that similar proportions of female NCOs (38%) and male NCOs (36%) are actively seeking a promotionFootnote 61. However, there are differences in promotional behaviors by gender.

The questionnaire further revealed that females are less likely to apply to multiple positions than their male counterparts. The table below highlights this difference.

Table 10 – Number of NCO positions applied to by gender

Number of positions applied toFemale NCOsMale NCOs
0 32% 26%
1 30% 23%
2-4 29% 33%
5+ 9% 18%

In addition, an analysis was conducted on NCO advertised job positions from fiscal year 2006-07 to 2011-12. While females represent a smaller proportion in the organization than males, one person may apply to multiple job postings. The analysis of job positions shows that 47% of job positions have at least one female applicant compared to 96% of job positions that have at least one male applicant.Footnote 62

For illustrative purposes, if 10 jobs were advertised one could expect to see the following example.

Figure 3 – Example of job posting versus the applications received by gender

For Job Posting
Applications Received By:# 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 6# 7# 8# 9# 10
Females x x x x x00000
Males x x x x x x x x x0

Although the proportion of members actively seeking a promotion is similar, the difference in behaviours associated to applying clearly demonstrates a gender behavior difference. This is further supported by RCMP data that shows that males tend to be promoted at a faster rate than females at this level. The table below depicts this promotion rate.Footnote 63

Table 11 - Promotion rates by years of serviceFootnote 64

Years of ServiceRank Achievement by Gender
7 – 9males achieve promotions at nearly twice the rate of females to the rank of Cpl.
10 – 14males achieve promotions at three times the rate of females to the rank of Sgt.
15 – 19males achieve promotions at three times the rate of females to the rank of S/Sgt.
20 – 24males achieve promotions at twice the rate of females to the rank of S/Sgt.

Overall, females appear to be more selective in the positions they apply to. This may be attributed to the following key factors that are more pronounced for women and previously discussed: work-life balance, mobility and family considerations. Additionally, interviews with females NCOs indicated that some of the reasons why they apply to fewer promotions include: challenges in writing competencies using "I" when actions are typically "team" based, and writing an application without an interview component.


Finding 5. There is equal opportunity for females in the non-commissioned officer promotional process however both genders identified the possibility of selection bias at certain stages.

 


Through interviews, both genders revealed that they felt there is an opportunity for selection bias in the NCO promotional process. Of the 85 NCOs interviewed, 47%Footnote 65 stated that while there is equal opportunity related to gender, the process does not provide equal opportunity to all members because selection bias is believed to exist at the line officer level, and in some cases the validation committee level. The most common examples of perceived biases interviewees shared included:

  • Validation Committee composition: The selection of validation committee members is not consistent across the country. In some regions, the Line Officer consults with Staffing and Personnel (S&P) to identify people to sit on the Validation Committee and in other regions S&P convenes the Validation Committees without Line Officer involvement. Regardless of the difference in application, committee members are identified and/or are nominated by an operational manager. This level of involvement leads to the view that there is a degree of influence on the process.
  • Inconsistency in validating competencies: Members stated that the competency ratings received may vary by validation committee and by Division. An example of such is a member who submitted the same competencies and examples to two different Regions simultaneously. Competencies were validated in one Region, but not in the other.
  • Line Officer bias: The Line Officer receives the application packages (including application, competency resumé and cover letter) of all the successful candidates and may utilize selection tools such as technical assessment and/or an interview to select the "best fit" candidate. Through interviews, members shared that since the Line Officer may know some of the candidates who had applied and are the decision makers regarding the selection of the "best fit" candidate, an opportunity for a bias exists.

It is important to note that the risk of selection bias is acknowledged by the RCMP. The NCO Promotion Process Selection Guide acknowledges the potential of a selection bias to occur based on similar or like experiences/background, "Research has shown that evaluators often have a tendency to judge candidates who are similar to themselves more favourably, because it creates a bond resulting in greater liking of a candidate. Another reason this happens is because of the implicit and incorrect assumption that if a candidate is like "me," he or she will also share the same abilities. People can be similar in a number of ways including: experiences; attitudes; group membership; and ethnic, racial, cultural or social background." Footnote 66

7.4 Officer Candidate Development Program

The OCDP evaluates and pre-qualifies RMs interested in a commission to the rank of Inspector. The Program is an important component in the selection and development of the RCMP's future leaders. In order to support sound succession planning, the OCDP is required to identify the potential, the knowledge and the competencies of employees.Footnote 67

The OCDP is as follows:

Graphic \showing the steps involved in The Officer Candidate Development Program

The Officer Candidate Development Program involves the following steps:

  1. A candidate can self-identify by submitting an application package or they can be invited to participate by having a Line Officer submit a business case along with an application package
  2. CO/DG Review Committee Support
  3. E/ODR Review/Support
  4. Competency Values Based Structured Interview
  5. Placement on National Eligibility List

Once members successfully complete the program, they are placed on the national eligibility list and can apply or be appointed without competition (depending on circumstances and requirements) to become a commissioned officer.


Finding 6. The number of female applicants to the Officer Candidate Development Program has remained constant while the number of male applicants has declined.

 


Since FY 2007-08, four OCDP cycles have taken place. Over this time period, the number of female RMs eligible to apply to the OCDP has almost doubled from 234 to 403.Footnote 68 As well, the proportion of females eligible to apply has remained consistently higher than males for the four OCDP cycles. This data suggests that the feeder pools of female RMs is growing at this stage. However, it is worth noting that the overall proportion of eligible members applying, both male and female, to the Program has declined over the last five years.

Furthermore, while the number of female applicants has remained relatively constant, the number of male applicants has dropped by 35% (119 during the 2011-12 cycle compared to 2007-08 where 186 had applied). As depicted in the table below, this has resulted in the proportion of female applicants increasing from 11% (in 2007-08 cycle) to 15% (in 2011-12 cycle).

Table 12 - OCDP eligibility and application figures by cycle and genderFootnote 69

OCDP Cycle Eligible Candidates (excluding Cpl. rank) Percentage of Eligible members applying Number of Applicants Proportion of Applicants
Female Male Female Male Female Male Total Female Male
2007-2008 234 2538 9.8% 7.3% 23 186 209 11% 89%
2008-2009 290 2670 7.2% 7.2% 21 193 214 10% 90%
2009-2010 355 2785 6.7% 5.0% 24 142 166 14% 86%
2011-2012 403 2817 5.2% 4.2% 21 119 140 15% 85%

* As there was no OCDP cycle for FY 2010-2011; this time period was not included in the table.

It is important to highlight that over this five year period, the success rate of applicants to the OCDP was similar with 40.3% for male applicants and 41.6% for female applicants.Footnote 70 If the number of female applicants and their success rates at the OCDP continue to remain constant while the downward trend of male applicants persists, the gender gap at the senior ranks will narrow over time.


Finding 7. External factors as well as lack of faith and transparency in the Officer Candidate Development Program may deter Regular Members from participating.

 


Of the NCOs interviewed, 20% plan on applying to the OCDP in the future with no significant difference by gender.Footnote 71 However, the top two reasons identified by the other 80% who are undecided or do not plan on applying to the OCDP include external factors such as: the desire for work-life balance, family, mobility and, lack of faith and transparency of the process. The following table highlights the top three reasons.

Table 13 – Top three reasons provided by interviewees as to why they may not apply Footnote 72

FemalesFootnote 73MalesFootnote 74
1Family/mobility/work-life38%1Lack of Faith and transparency in the process32%
2Lack of Faith and transparency in the process26%2Family/mobility/work-life24%
3Near retirement13%3Near retirement12%

It is possible that the RCMP is missing out on potentially strong leaders who are opting not to enter into the OCDP as they place a higher degree of importance on family and stability (not relocating). This was acknowledged in an internal report on the OCDP which stated, "We are missing good members in the OCDP process because they are not mobile."Footnote 75

Mobility is largely dependent on a member's personal situation, and has been identified as the number one reason for females not applying to the OCDP, despite the fact that the number of eligible females members is increasing.

Lack of faith and transparency of the promotional process was identified as one of the top three reasons for not entering the OCDP by both genders. These reasons include the view of subjectivity in the commissioned officer promotional process and a belief that, for the most part, one has to belong to a "club" in order to be successful. This is supported by comments from interviewees such as: "depends on who you know, wrong people are getting through the process and having to belong to a club."

The "club" is described as being a privileged group of individuals who receive benefits and opportunities that are not equally available to others. As indicated in an RCMP report, the perceived view of a "club" has expanded its membership to include women and men of different ages, years of service and category of employee.Footnote 76

The issues raised above may deter those who are eligible to apply to the OCDP, from applying. This finding is applicable for both genders, but has a more pronounced impact on female representation.


Finding 8. Regular Members want to be promoted based on merit regardless of gender.

 


In a communiqué launching the 2009-2010 OCDP cycle, which was a trial cycle to bolster employment equity groups, E/ODR broadcasted, "The RCMP is committed to being a skilled, diversified workforce that is reflective of Canadian society and representative of the communities it serves. Therefore, we are strongly encouraging greater participation from members within employment equity groups."Footnote 77

Although such a cycle was only run one time, such communication has the potential to generate skepticism amongst the members. Interviewees indicated that they were wary of members being promoted as 'token' representatives rather than promoted based on merit. Literature review supports this sentiment:

EE [Employment Equity] initiatives should be inclusive, and would likely cause a backlash if only EE group members could benefit. These sentiments are supported by research that suggests that all RCMP members place a high degree of weight on merit (Murphy, 2002). It further demonstrates that women have negative reactions to being beneficiaries of preferential treatment.Footnote 78



Finding 9. Inconsistencies in the application of the Officer Candidate Development Program exist by gender, particularly at the support stage.

 


Support

Once a candidate's application for the OCDP has been completed, the next step in their process is to obtain support from their respective Line Officer, Commanding Officer, and E/ODR.

From the questionnaire, of the NCOs who participated in an OCDP cycle, but were not successful, 93%Footnote 79 received Line Officer support and 81%Footnote 80 received Commanding Officer support. For instance, of those NCOs who sought support from their Line Officer, 14% of females compared to 6% of males did not receive support. Of those who sought Commanding Officer support, 28% of females compared to 18% of males did not receive support. This data implies that female NCOs are less likely to receive support from their superiors for the purpose of applying to the OCDP. Reasons for this finding could not be sought and/or specified in the questionnaire due to opinion research restrictions. The RCMP may wish to explore this matter further.

Interview Board

Once support has been received, the candidate is called to appear before an Interview Board. This is the next step which may contribute to inconsistencies in the application of the program. The OCDP policy states that Interview Boards are to be composed of three commissioned officers or their equivalent. To mitigate opportunities for selection bias to occur and provide an objective setting, the OCDP policy recommends that the Chair be from a different region or business line. At times the application of this is difficult to satisfy as logistics and availability play a large role in the composition of boards.

Interview board members are also to be selected with consideration to the candidate's category of employee and diversity (defined as ethnicity or specialization in the policy).Footnote 81 Although diversity is not defined to include gender, it was indicated by interviewees in one particular Region that gender representation was mandatory. This is an example of the inconsistent application of the OCDP policy.

The questionnaire demonstrated that 35% of all members who participated in an interview had female representation on at least one board.Footnote 82 A large portion of females interviewed who had a female member as part of their board explained that the female representation was not always a positive experience, and in some cases, was negative. Overall, it was perceived that the female board member(s) held female candidates to a higher standard than the others. All commissioned officers interviewed, both female and male, did not believe that gender representation on Interview Boards was required or would help to increase gender neutrality.

OCDP improvements

Efforts are being made to strengthen the OCDP. As an example, E/ODR advised that they have expanded the 'administrative check component' to include a review of applicants' background with respect to public complaints, harassment and discipline. This is to ensure that future leaders of the organization are strong representatives of the RCMP's core values.

Although E/ODR has enhanced certain components of the OCDP, additional communication would help to ensure all members are aware of these and other changes. These changes will not be seen immediately as opinions of selection bias and the need to belong to a "club" will take time to change.

7.5 Commissioned Officer Promotional Process

Talent management and succession planning for the commissioned officer cadre is facilitated by E/ODR on behalf of the Commissioner.


Finding 10. Female representation at the commissioned officer ranks has increased over the last decade.

 


Since the RCMP adopted the terms of the EEA in 2002, female representation at the commissioned officer ranks has increased from 4% to 12% (as depicted in the table below). The most significant increase happened at the ranks of Inspector and Superintendent. For instance, in 2002 there was one female Superintendent and in 2012 this number increased to 21.

At the Chief Superintendent and Assistant Commissioner ranks, there was a small increase from 2002 to 2012 with respect to female number and a slight decrease in the number of males. The table below demonstrates that there may be opportunities in the future to strengthen gender diversity at the very senior ranks; having 52 female Inspectors and 21 female Superintendents creates a larger feeder pool of eligible candidates compared to that of 2002.

Table 14 - Female representation at the Commissioned Officer ranks as of April 1 Footnote 83

RCMP Commissioned Officer RanksApril 1, 2002April 1, 2012
Female Male Female Representation Female Male Female Representation
Inspector 14 287 5% 52 375 12%
Superintendent 1 121 1% 21 170 11%
Chief Superintendent 4 48 8% 6 46 12%
Assistant Commissioner 0 23 0% 2 21 9%
Deputy Commissioner 1 5 17% 1* 5 17%
Total 20 484 4% 81 617 12%

* Since April 1, 2012, there is no longer female representation at the Deputy Commissioner rank. As of September 2012, there are seven male Deputy Commissioners.

While the number of female commissioned officers has increased within the RCMP, literature review speaks at large of women's low representation in senior level positions being due in part, to the fact that they are still making their way through the ranks as they have not been in the organization long enough. In addition, females are making the decision to retire early from the organization as opposed to moving up the ranks.Footnote 84 This decision impacts the feeder pools of eligible female RMs for the senior level positions.


Finding 11. At the commissioned officer ranks, females are more likely than males to be appointed to positions, whether advertised or non-advertised positions.

 


In the past, the majority of positions at the commissioned officer ranks were non-advertised. There were a limited number of positions advertised at the senior ranks which generated concerns regarding the openness, transparency and fairness of the process. Over the last five years (2007-08 to 2011-12), the number of advertised position has increased from 7% to 31% for the Inspector rank and from 14% to 38% at the Superintendent rank.Footnote 85

Based on the questionnaire, females are more likely than males to be appointed to non-advertised positions. Data demonstrates that 61% of females were promoted to the rank of Inspector without competition compared to 46% of males. Data also reveals that 56% of females state being promoted to the rank of Superintendent through non-advertised positions compared to 51% of men.Footnote 86

In addition, commissioned female officers have been more likely than their male counterparts to succeed at obtaining an appointment to an advertised position to which they applied.Footnote 87 This supports that females at the commissioned officer ranks succeed when applying to advertised positions.

Advertising positions supports a transparent process and provides equal opportunity for all interested members.


Finding 12. Nearly one-quarter of commissioned officers identified a lack of faith in the competitive process.

 


E/ODR is responsible for all Human Resources activities related to officers and executives across the RCMP. This includes policies, staffing, performance management, talent management, succession planning, classification, and records. Footnote 88

The policy governing E/ODR's promotional process is entitled succession planning. Within this policy there are two distinct succession planning processes; one that applies to the officer and the other that applies the senior executive group.Footnote 89 Compared to other internal policies and processes that govern recruitment and promotions up to the commissioned officer ranks (including OCDP), the policies guiding promotions at commissioned officer ranks are broad and less prescriptive. The succession planning policy does not explicitly define the elements/steps of the promotional process. From a candidate's standpoint, this can generate concerns regarding the level of fairness and transparency of the process.

For instance, the 2012 Companion Survey revealed that 24%Footnote 90 of commissioned officers (17% female and 26% of males) identified lack of faith in the competitive process as a barrier that prevented them from applying to a promotion.Footnote 91 As well, more than half (53%) of female commissioned officers and 43%Footnote 92 of male commissioned officers surveyed also stated that increasing transparency and fairness in the competitive process would increase their interest in seeking promotions.Footnote 93

E/ODR advised that they have recently implemented changes to increase transparency and strengthen promotional processes. For example, more positions are advertised now compared to the past at the commissioned officer ranks.

While this change aimed to enhance transparency, increased communication with the membership could help to generate greater awareness of the process and available sources of support to members. The result of this could contribute to changing members' views of the promotional process at the commissioned officer ranks.

7.6 Examination of RCMP Policies

An analysis of RCMP policies on recruitment, NCO promotions and the OCDP, in both official languages, was conducted in order to determine gender neutrality as it relates to the nature of the language and its meaning within each policy.


Finding 13. Language and content of policies (English and French) governing recruiting and promotional processes are predominately gender neutral. Two areas revealed subjective language to one gender.

 


Overall, the language and content of the English and French policies on recruitment, NCO promotions and the OCDP were found to be gender neutral.

In English, the NCO promotion policy uses language techniques (i.e., he/she and his/her) that are gender neutral, however these techniques are considered basic in nature. Footnote 94

In French, the language of the policies used the masculine generic as the predominant gender neutral technique. By using exclusively the masculine generic like the following French words "postulant'', "cadet'' and "expert" the female equivalent is less visible. While the use of masculine as generic is grammatically correct, it can leave the impression that the female is a secondary consideration. Footnote 95

Two areas were identified in RCMP policies. One was found within the RCMP's recruitment policy and the other is within the NCO promotion policy, which can be interpreted to favour members falling under Employment Equity designated groups. This was found within both the English and French versions of the policies.

The first area is found under the recruitment policy where due to the EEA designated groups, female applicants may be selected over non designated male applicants despite having lower test scores.Footnote 96

The second area is located in the NCO promotional policy. It also may be interpreted to favour Employment Equity designated groups. For example, there are instances in the content of the NCO promotional policy, in both languages, where exceptions may be made to target a larger group of designated group members.Footnote 97

These two areas in the recruitment and NCO promotional policies are justified to ensure that the RCMP complies with the Employment Equity Act and the Government of Canada's Employment Equity Policy. Footnote 98

7.7 Governance

The 1995 Federal Plan for Gender Equality committed federal departments and agencies to develop a framework to assist in the implementation of a gender-based analysis. A gender-based analysis includes a framework and is an analytical tool that can assess how the impact of policies and programs on women may differ from their impact on men. A sound gender-based analysis framework should include: policy, roles and responsibilities, tools, training, self-assessments, a champion and reporting.

The overall goal of a gender-based analysis is to achieve gender equality within an organization and to ensure that programs and policies have their intended effects.


Finding 14. There is minimal coordination of gender-based initiatives within the RCMP. Collecting and tracking of gender-based information and its analysis is critical to support decision making that impact recruitment and promotion activities.

 


Currently, the RCMP does not have a gender-based analysis framework developed. Over the last year, the RCMP has engaged in research and discussion with outside agencies, including the Status of Women Canada, to gain a better understanding of the requirements for the development of this framework.

As well, gender-based initiatives are dispersed across multiple areas throughout the RCMP. For instance, some regions and divisions have implemented gender-based initiatives that focus on increasing the representation of female RMs, eliminating biases, and fostering an equal opportunity environment.Footnote 99 Coordination, support and guidance on gender-based work is limited, and without performance measurement tools, it is uncertain how effective these initiatives have been.

The RCMP is not alone in coordinating and understanding this issue. The Office of the Auditor General conducted an audit of gender-based frameworks in 2009 and determined that there is no government wide policy requiring departments to establish a framework. Out of seven departments examined, the existence and completeness of gender-based analysis frameworks was quite varied. One department had a complete and appropriate framework, others had none.Footnote 100

There is an opportunity to conduct a gender-based analysis, develop a framework and strengthen decision-making based on good information that is collected and analyzed across the Force. This would ensure that gaps are identified early and addressed. As well, the RCMP can report on the progress it has made in this area using performance measurement.

8.0 Conclusion

Overall, females currently represent 20% of the total RM population. Representation of female police officers within the RCMP has increased over the last decade and is comparable to that of other police services across Canada even though, the organization remains below the labour market availability rate (27%).

Over the last five years, the RCMP has increased its female representation within the organization, more specifically at the commissioned officer ranks. However, this assessment identified factors that prevent both genders from applying to promotions. While not all of these factors are gender specific, the majority have a more pronounced impact on females. The most significant factors that were identified are as follows:

  • External factors such as mobility, family and work-life balance
  • Female attrition rates beyond 20 years of service
  • The view of lack of fairness and transparency in the promotional processes at all ranks
  • Gender discrepancies in the success rate for the PARE
  • Support for female members at the OCDP

As it addresses the above mentioned factors, the RCMP should develop a framework that would enable the organization to identify, gather, track and monitor critical information to support decision making. Such information will enable the organization to assess whether gender-related initiatives are achieving their desired outcomes and enable timely corrective action.

Appendix A – Policies

Non-Commissioned Officer Promotional Policy

Officer Candidate Develop Program Policy

Executive/Officer Development and Resourcing

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1Canada. Parliament. House of Commons. Standing Committee on Public Safety and National Security. Minutes of Proceedings. 41st

Footnote 2McGinnis James. Attrition of RCMP Men and Women: 2008/2009 and 2009-2010. Research & Intelligence, HR Management Services, RCMP. Presentation.

Footnote 3RCMP, Assessment & Research, Workplace Programs & Services (2011, December 22). Attrition Rates Men and Women RMs: FY 07-08 through FY 10-11. Presentation.

Footnote 4Gender-Based Assessment interviews conducted by National Program Evaluation Services; evaluators.

Footnote 52012 Data Administrative Collection Questionnaire: 68% represents 882 female respondents out of 1288 females RMs who received the questionnaire and 53% represents 3159 male respondents out of 5950 male RMs who received the questionnaire.

Footnote 6Statistics Canada (2005-2011). Police Resources in Canada – Chronological index. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=85-225-X&chropg=1&lang=eng

Footnote 7Statistics Canada (2005-2011). Police Resources in Canada – Chronological index. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=85-225-X&chropg=1&lang=eng

Footnote 8HRMIS data extract, RCMP (2012, April).

Footnote 9Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Police Administration Survey - Police Resources in Canada. Catalogue no. 85-255-X.

Footnote 10HRMIS data extract, RCMP (2012, April).

Footnote 11Eight police services included: Ontario Provincial Police, Edmonton Police Services, Vancouver City Police, Calgary City Police, Royal Newfoundland Constabulary, Toronto Police Service, Ottawa Police Service and the RCMP.

Footnote 12Senior Management Occupations: Occupations in this major group are primarily concerned with establishing government policy and carrying out the functions of management through middle managers, in all levels of government and in industrial, commercial, or institutional organizations. Managing functions include: planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, controlling, staffing, and formulating, implementing or enforcing policy. Supervising is not considered to be a management function. Statistics Canada (2010, March 22). National Occupational Classification – Statistics (NOC-S) 2006. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://stds.statcan.gc.ca/soc-cnp/2006/cs-rc-eng.asp?cretaria=A0

Footnote 13Author unknown (2012, March). Canadian Women. Catalyst. Retrieved July 9, 2012, from http://www.catalyst.org/publication/229/canadian-women

Footnote 14RCMP. Regular and Civilian Members Employment Equity Report Fiscal Year 2010/2011, page 14.

Footnote 15The Labour Market Availability (LMA) is a percentage that is derived from Census data indicating what segments of the population would be most interested in policing and who meet specific criteria.

Footnote 16RCMP (2011, March). Employment Equity – Draft. Presentation for A/Commr. Dan Dubeau.

Footnote 17Montgomery Ruth (2102, March). Gender Audits in Policing Organizations, page 9.

Footnote 18 In partnership with the Department of National Defence, Manitoba Justice and Winnipeg Police Services.

Footnote 19 RCMP. Regular and Civilian Members Employment Equity Report Fiscal Year 2010/2011, page 13.

Footnote 20 Murphy Steven A. (2003, February). Choosing the Tough Road to Increase EE Group Representation in the RCMP. HR Research & Intelligence, RCMP.

Footnote 21 HRMIS data extract, RCMP (April 1, 2012).

Footnote 22 RCMP. Career Management Manual, Section 1. 15. Note: For the purpose of promotion, time spent on leave without pay for reasons other than education leave, maternity leave or parental leave, will not count towards time in the current rank or service in the RCMP.

Footnote 23 HRMIS data extract (2012, April).

Footnote 24 This is seen in the 2008 NCO Survey that was conducted by the RCMP's National Staffing and Recruiting Services which examines promotional behaviours of RMs at the NCO ranks.

Footnote 25RCMP, National Staffing and Recruitment Services (2008, March). Survey of the opinions and perspectives of RCMP regular members regarding promotions: A brief summary, page 2.

Footnote 26 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: 21% (47 out of 222) of female NCOs with dependents versus 27% (22 out of 83) of female NCOs without dependents applied for a promotion outside their division. There was little difference by dependent status for male NCOs with 29% (242 out of 839) with dependents versus 30% (46 out of 155) without dependents.

Footnote 27 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: 20% (44 out of 222) of female NCOs with dependents versus 29% (24 out of 82) of female NCOs without dependents applied for a promotion outside their region. No significant differences were observed between 25% (212 out of 841) male NCOs with dependents and 27% (42 out of 155) of male NCOs without dependents who applied for promotion outside their region.

Footnote 28 Murphy Steven (2002, February). Officer Motivation and Succession Planning: An Empirical Investigation of Senior Management Development in the RCMP. HR Research & Intelligence, RCMP, page 7.

Footnote 29 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: 3 out of 95 female Sergeants.

Footnote 30 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: 69 out of 354 males Sergeants.

Footnote 31 Duxbury Linda & Higgins Christopher (2012). Caring for and about those who serve: Work-life conflict and employee well-being within Canada`s Police Departments Summary: Key Differences Associated with Rank and Gender, pages 12 – 15, figures 19, 20 & 21.

Footnote 32 Duxbury Linda & Higgins Christopher (2012). Caring for and about those who serve: Work-life conflict and employee wellbeing within Canada`s Police Department, Summary: Key Differences Associated with Rank and Gender, page 4.

Footnote 33 Duxbury Linda & Higgins Christopher (2012). Caring for and about those who serve: Work-life conflict and employee well-being within Canada`s Police Departments Summary: Key Differences Associated with Rank and Gender, page 19, page 20, figure 26.

Footnote 34 Lakshmi Ram and Associates (2006, April). Employment Systems Review: Summary of findings RCMP, page 12.

Footnote 35Lakshmi Ram and Associates (2006, April). Employment Systems Review: Summary of findings RCMP, page 8.

Footnote 36 RCMP, Official Languages Directorate (2012). Draft Employment Equity Action Plan: April 2012-March 2017. Presentation.

Footnote 37 Canadian Mental Health Association, Ontario (2010). Workplace Mental Health Promotion: A How-To Guide. Last modified: April 21, 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2012. From http://wmhp.cmhaontario.ca/workplace-mental-health-core-concepts-issues/issues-in-the-workplace-that-affect-employee-mental-health/work-life-balance

Footnote 38 Grodnitzky Gustavo. Ready or Not, Here They Come! Understanding and Motivating the Millennial Generation. Presentation.

Footnote 39 Catalyst (2012). Generations in the Workplace in Canada & the United States, page 1.

Footnote 40McGinnis, James. Attrition of RCMP Men and Women: 2008/2009 and 2009-2010. Research & Intelligence, HR Management Services, RCMP. Presentation.

Footnote 41 RCMP (2010, April 30). RCMP Demographics: HR Issues and Challenges. Presentation.

Footnote 42 Murphy Steven (2002, February). Officer Motivation and Succession Planning: An Empirical Investigation of Senior Management Development in the RCMP", HR Research & Intelligence, RCMP, page 7.

Footnote 43 Murphy Steven (2002, February). Officer Motivation and Succession Planning: An Empirical Investigation of Senior Management Development in the RCMP", HR Research & Intelligence, RCMP, page 7.

Footnote 44 RCMP (2010, April 30). RCMP Demographics: HR Issues and Challenges. Presentation.

Footnote 45International Association of Chiefs of Police (1998, November). The Future of Women in Policing: Mandates for Action, page 8.

Footnote 46 RCMP (2012, May 3). Cadet Selection Process. Regular Member Recruiting. Retrieved September 25, 2012. From http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/recruiting-recrutement/rec/process-processus-eng.htm.

Footnote 47 According to the Employment Equity Act of Canada, "designated groups" means women, aboriginal peoples, persons with disabilities and members of visible minorities.

Footnote 48 Recruitments Statistics FY 2007-08 to FY 2011-12 provided by National Staffing and Recruiting Services, RCMP on May 18, 2012.

Footnote 49 RCMP. Regular and Civilian Members Employment Equity Report Fiscal Year 2010/2011, page 8.

Footnote 50 Recruitments Statistics FY 2007-08 to FY 2011-12 provided by National Staffing and Recruiting Services, RCMP on May 18, 2012.Note: Applicants could have attempted and passed the PARE more than once in the same fiscal year. 96% represents 25,502 applicants who passed the PARE out of 26,602 applicants who attempted the PARE. 84% represents 3,958 female applicants who passed the PARE out of 4,709 female applicants who attempted the PARE. 98% represents 21,544 male applicants who passed the PARE out of 21,893 male applicants who attempted the PARE.

Footnote 51 A 'troop' consists of a maximum of 32 men and women who follow their entire 24-week Cadet Training Program together.

Footnote 52 Recruitments Statistics FY 2007-08 to FY 2011-12 provided by National Staffing and Recruiting Services, RCMP May 18, 2012.

Footnote 53 RCMP, Directorate of Diversity & Official Languages (2012, July 12). Presentation delivered by Nathalie Ferreira, Director of Diversity & Official Languages.

Footnote 54 Cadets can be terminated for not making training benchmarks, unsatisfactory mid-term reports, breach of core values and medical reasons which prohibit cadets from continuing training.

Footnote 55 Depot statistics received from Training, Innovation & Research, RCMP Depot Division July 16, 2012. Note: Data on Cadets was captured and reported based on fiscal year of enrollment regardless of whether the termination or resignation occurred in the next fiscal year.

Footnote 56 Depot statistics received from Training, Innovation & Research, RCMP Depot Division August 9, 2012.

Footnote 57 Depot statistics received from Training, Innovation & Research, RCMP Depot Division July 16, 2012. Note: Data on Cadets was captured and reported based on fiscal year of enrollment regardless of whether the termination or resignation occurred in the next fiscal year.

Footnote 58 Depot statistics received from Training, Innovation & Research, RCMP Depot Division August 22, 2012.

Footnote 59 Recruitments Statistics FY 2007-08 to FY 2011-12 provided by National Staffing and Recruiting Services, RCMP on May 18, 2012.

Footnote 60 RCMP, Career Management Manual, 4. Promotion, Part 10. NCO Promotion Process. Amended September 10, 2012.

Footnote 61 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: 312 out of 817 females and 1015 out of 2805 males are actively seeking a promotion.

Footnote 62 HRMIS data for FY 2006-07 to 2011-12 extracted on June 2012 indicates that there were a total of 5503 NCO job openings. Female RMs applied to 2585 (47%) of these openings and male RMs applied to 5299 (96%) of these openings.

Footnote 63 The table is a "static photograph" of rank achievement at a single point in time.

Footnote 64 McGinnis, James (2012, February). Rank Achievement of Men and Women RMs by Years of Service. Assessment & Research, Workplace Programs & Services, RCMP. Presentation.

Footnote 65Gender-based Assessment interviews: 47% represents 40 NCOs of 85.

Footnote 66 RCMP, HR Research & Intelligence Directorate (2009). NCO Promotion Process Selection Guide for Career Development and Resource Advisor, Validation Committee and Line Officers. Revised November 2009.

Footnote 67RCMP, Officer Candidate Development Program (OCDP), Executive/Officer Development & Resourcing, Human Resources. Retrieved July 12, 2012 - Infoweb.

Footnote 68HRMIS data extract, RCMP (2012, April).

Footnote 69 OCDP Annual Reports provided by E/ODR May 2012. Note: Civilian Member applicants excluded from table.

Footnote 70 40.3% represents 258 successful male applicants out of 640 male applicants and 41.6% represents 37 successful female applicants out of 89 female applicants.

Footnote 71 Gender-based Assessment interviews: 49 Female NCO interviewees responded to this question and 31 Male NCO interviewees responded to this question

Footnote 72 Gender-based Assessment interviews: 80% of interviewees who do not plan on applying to the OCDP.

Footnote 73 Reasons stated by the 39 Females NCOs who stated No or Maybe.

Footnote 74 Reasons stated by the 25 Male NCOs who stated No or Maybe.

Footnote 75 Burns R.D. (2010, March 31). Mobility, page 5.

Footnote 76 RCMP, "E" Division (2012, March 30). Summary Report on Gender Harassment and Respectful Workplace Consultations, page 9.

Footnote 77 RCMP (2009, October 2). Launch of the 2010 Officer Candidate Development Program on November 2, 2009. Info-News. Retrieved July 12, 2012.

Footnote 78 Murphy Steven A. (2003, February). Choosing the Tough Road to Increase EE Group Representation in the RCMP. HR Research & Intelligence, RCMP, page 8.

Footnote 79 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: 384 out of 415 received Line Officer support for at least one OCDP cycle that they have participated in. This can be broken down by gender as follows: 14% of females (9 out of 64) compared to 6% of males (22 of 351).

Footnote 80 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: 335 out of 415 received Commanding Officer support for at least one OCDP cycle that they have participated in. This can be broken down by gender as follows: 28% of females (18 of 64) compared to 18% of males (62 of 351).

Footnote 81 RCMP (2012, January 25). Executive/Officer Manual. RCMP Manuals. Section 5.3 Retrieved July 12, 2012

Footnote 82 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire: - 28% (117 out of 415) of NCOs who participated had female representation on at least one board – 31% (20 out of 64) of females versus 28% (97 out of 351) of males. - 41% (172 out of 419) of commissioned officers had female representation on at least one board – 35% (23 out of 65) of females versus 42% (149 out of 354) of males.

Footnote 83 HRMIS data extract (April 1, 2012): RCMP table breakdown of RMs by rank, gender and year from 1990 to 2012.

Footnote 84 Farrell Michelle LL.B, Ramsey Amy (2011). Diversity, Women, and Policing: How are we doing? pages 23-24.

Other sources include Tomlinson Asha (2001 December 17). Concrete Ceiling harder to break than glass for women of colour. Canadian HR Reporter, 14 (22) 7, 13.

Footnote 85 E/ODR administrative data provided June 5, 2012:

  • 7% (17 jobs out of 252) compared to 31% (61 jobs out of 198)
  • 14% ( 11 out of 77) compared to 38% (28 jobs out of 74)

Footnote 86 2012 Administrative Data Collection Questionnaire:

  • 61% represents 23 out of 38 females compared to 46% which represents 102 out of 224 males
  • 56% represents 10 out of 18 females compared to 51% which represents 47 out of 93 males

Footnote 87 E/ODR administrative data indicates that 15% applications submitted by females compared to 10% applications submitted by males have resulted in appointments to advertised positions.

Footnote 88 RCMP, (2009, September 29). Executive/Officer Development & Resourcing Infoweb. Human Resources. Retrieved July 13, 2012

Footnote 89 RCMP, Executive/ Officer Manual, Succession Planning. Section E for officer succession planning process; section F for executive succession planning process. Last amended 2010-11-23.

Footnote 90 2012 Companion Survey: 24% represents 57 out of 234 commissioned officers. It can be broken down further into 17% which represents 6 out of 36 female commissioned officers and 26% which represents 51 out of 198 male commissioned officers.

Footnote 91 Specifically, respondents were asked, "In your opinion, which of the following barriers or challenges are you facing that are preventing you from taking on higher levels of responsibility or promotion? (Please select all that apply.)"

Footnote 92 2012 Companion Survey: 53% represents 19 out of 36 female commissioned officers and 43% represents 86 out of 198 male commissioned officers.

Footnote 93 Specifically, respondents were asked, "Which of the following initiatives/activities would increase your interest in seeking promotions if they were undertaking by your organization? (Please select all that apply.)"

Footnote 94 Bales Rick (2002, May). Gender Neutral Language. Bench & Bar, pages 40-41.

Footnote 95 RCMP, Internal Audit (2012, July 26). Gender-Based Assessment, Finding Sheet Criterion 4.

Footnote 96 RCMP, Internal Audit (2012, July 26). Gender-Based Assessment, Finding Sheet Criterion 1.

Footnote 97 RCMP, Internal Audit (2012, July 26). Gender-Based Assessment, Finding Sheet Criterion 2.

Footnote 98 RCMP, Internal Audit (2012, July 26). Gender-Based Assessment, Finding Sheet Criterion 1-4.

Footnote 99 RCMP, Internal briefing note to the Chief Human Resources Officer (2012, April 19).

Footnote 100 Office of the Auditor General of Canada (2009, Spring). Report of the Auditor General of Canada to the House of Commons: Chapter 1 Gender-based Analysis, pages 10-11. Note: The departments included in the OAG audit were: Department of Finance Canada, Health Canada, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (Formerly INAC but currently called Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada), Department of Justice Canada, Transport Canada and Veterans Affairs Canada. The only department which had and implemented the elements of a Gender-based Analysis framework was INAC.